Minutes APPENDIX A and Treaty of Sevres San
II.—Positions of all minefields, torpedo-tubes, and other obstructions in Turkish waters to
be indicated, and assistance given to sweep or remove them as may be required.
III.—All available information as to mines in the
Sea to be communicated.
IV.—All Allied prisoners of war and Armenian interned persons and prisoners to be collected
Constantinople and handed over
unconditionally to the Allies.
V.—Immediate demobilization of the Turkish army, except for such troops as are required
for the surveillance of the frontiers and for the maintenance of internal order. (Number of
effectives and their disposition to be determined later by the Allies after consultation with
the Turkish Government.)
VI.—Surrender of all war vessels in Turkish waters or in waters occupied by
ships to be interned at such Turkish port or ports as may be directed, except such small
vessels as are required for police or similar purposes in Turkish territorial waters.
VII.—The Allies to have the right to occupy any strategic points in the event of any situation
arising which threatens the security of the Allies.
VIII.—Free use by the Allied ships of all ports and anchorages now in Turkish occupation
and denial of their use to the enemy. Similar conditions to apply to Turkish mercantile shipping
in Turkish waters for purposes of trade and the demobilization of the army.
IX.—Use of all ship-repair facilities at all Turkish ports and arsenals.
X.—Allied occupation of the Taurus tunnel system.
XI.—Immediate withdrawal of the Turkish troops from
Persia to behind the
pre-war frontier has already been ordered and will be carried out. Part of Trans-Caucasia
has already been ordered to be evacuated by Turkish troops; the remainder is to be evacuated
if required by the Allies after they have studied the situation there.
XII.—Wireless telegraphy and cable stations to be controlled by the Allies, Turkish Govern-
ment messages excepted.
XIII.—Prohibition to destroy any naval, military, or commercial material.
XIV.—Facilities to be given for the purchase of coal and oil fuel, and naval material from
Turkish sources after the requirements of the country have been met. None of the above
material to be exported.
XV.—Allied Control Officers to be placed on all railways, including such portions of the
Trans-Caucasian Railways as are now under Turkish control, which must be placed at the
free and complete disposal of the Allied authorities, due consideration being given to the
* Temperley, Peace Conference, 1: 495-97.
needs of the population. This clause to include Allied occupation of Batoum.
raise no objection to the occupation of
by the Allies.
XVI.—Surrender of all garrisons in
Assir, Yemen Syria, and Mesopotamia
nearest Allied Commander; and the withdrawal of troops from
except those necessary
to maintain order, as will be determined under Clause V.
XVII.—Surrender of all Turkish officers in
and Cyrenaica to the nearest Italian
guarantees to stop supplies and communication with these officers if they
do not obey the order to surrender.
XVIII.—Surrender of all ports occupied in
and Cyrenaica, including Misurata,
to the nearest Allied garrison.
XIX.—All Germans and Austrians, naval, military, and civilian, to be evacuated within
one month from the Turkish dominions: those in remote districts to be evacuated as soon
after as may be possible.
XX.—The compliance with such orders as may be conveyed for the disposal of the equipment,
arms, and ammunition, including transport, of that portion of the Turkish Army which is
demobilized under Clause V.
XXI.—An Allied representative to be attached to the Turkish Ministry of Supplies in order
to safeguard Allied interests. This representative is to be furnished with all information necessary
for this purpose.
XXII.—Turkish prisoners to be kept at the disposal of the Allied Powers. The release of
Turkish civilian prisoners over military age to be considered.
XXIII.—Obligation on the part of
to cease all relations with the Central Powers.
XXIV.—In case of disorder in the six Armenian vilayets, the Allies reserve to themselves
the right to occupy any part of them.
XXV.—Hostilities between the Allies and
shall cease from , local time, on
Signed in duplicate on board His Britannic Majesty's Ship Agamemnon, at Port Mudros,
(Signed) ARTHUR CALTHORPE
THE SYKES-PICOT AGREEMENT *
Letter from Sir Edward Grey to M. Cambon
I have the honour to acknowledge the receipt of your Excellency's note of the 9th instant,
stating that the French Government accept the limits of a future
or Confederation Arab State
of States, and of those parts of
where French interests predominate, together with certain
conditions attached thereto, such as they result from recent discussions in
London and Petrograd
on the subject.
I have the honour to inform your Excellency in reply that the acceptance of the whole
project, as it now stands, will involve the abdication of considerable British interests, but,
since His Majesty's Government recognise the advantage to the general cause of the Allies
entailed in producing a more favourable internal political situation in
they are ready
to accept the arrangement now arrived at, provided that the co-operation of the Arabs is
secured, and that the Arabs fulfill the conditions and obtain the towns of Horns,
It is accordingly understood between the French and British Governments—
and Great Britain
are prepared to recognise and uphold an independent
map, under the suzerainty of an Arab chief. That in area (A)
France, and in
area (B) Great
and in area (B)
shall alone supply advisers or foreign functionaries at the request
or Confederation of Arab States. Arab State
2. That in the blue area
and in the red area Great Britain,
shall be allowed to
establish such direct or indirect administration or control as they desire and as they may
think fit to arrange with the
or Confederation of Arab
3. That in the brown area there shall be established an international administration, the
form of which is to be decided upon after consultation with
and subsequently in
consultation with the other Allies, and the representatives of the Shereef of Mecca.
be accorded (1) the ports of Haifa
and Acre, (2) guarantee of a
given supply of water from the
and Euphrates in area (A) for area (B). His Majesty's
Government, on their part, undertake that they will at no time enter into negotiations for
the cession of
to any third Power without the previous consent of the French Govern-
* Br. Doc, 4: 245-47.
Alexandretta shall be a free
port as regards the trade of the British Empire, and
that there shall be no discrimination in port charges or facilities as regards British shipping
and British goods; that there shall be freedom of transit for British goods through
and by railway through the blue area, whether those goods are intended for or originate
in the red area, or (B) area, or area (A); and there shall be no discrimination, direct or
indirect, against British goods on any railway or against British goods or ships at any port
serving the areas mentioned.
be a free port as regards the trade of France,
her dominions and protec-
torates, and there shall be no discrimination in port charges or facilities as regards French
shipping and French goods. There shall be freedom of transit for French goods through
for or originate in the blue area, area (A), or area (B), and there shall be no discrimination,
direct or indirect, against French goods on any railway, or against French goods or ships
at any port serving the areas mentioned.
6. That in area (A) the Bagdad Railway shall not be extended southwards beyond
and in area (B) northwards beyond
until a railway connecting Bagdad with Aleppo
has been completed, and then only with the concurrence of the Euphrates Valley
has the right to build, administer, and be sole owner of a railway
with area (B), and shall have a perpetual right to transport troops along
such a line at all times.
It is to be understood by both Governments that this railway is to facilitate the connexion
Bagdad with Haifa
by rail, and it is further understood that, if the engineering difficulties
and expense entailed by keeping this connecting line in the brown area only make the project
unfeasible, that the French Government shall be prepared to consider that the line in question
may also traverse the polygon Banias-Keis Marib-Salkhad Tell Otsda-Mesmie before reaching
8. For a period of twenty years the existing Turkish customs tariff shall remain in force
throughout the whole of the blue and red areas, as well as in areas (A) and (B), and no
increase in the rates of duty or conversion from ad valorem to specific rates shall be made
except by agreement between the two powers.
There shall be no interior customs barriers between any of the above-mentioned areas.
The customs duties leviable on goods destined for the interior shall be collected at the port
of entry and handed over to the administration of the area of designation.
9. It shall be agreed that the French Government will at no time enter into any negotiations
for the cession of their rights and will not cede such rights in the blue area to any third
Power, except the
or Confederation of Arab
States, without the previous agreement Arab
of His Majesty's Government, who, on their part, will give a similar undertaking to the French
Government regarding the red area.
10. The British and French Governments, as the protectors of the
shall agree Arab State
that they will not themselves acquire and will not consent to a third Power acquiring territorial
possessions in the
nor consent to a third Power installing a naval base
either on the east coast, or on the islands, of the
Sea. This, however, shall not prevent
such adjustment of the
frontier as may be necessary in consequence of recent Turkish
11. The negotiations with the Arabs as to the boundaries of the
or Confederation Arab State
of Arab States shall be continued through the same channel as heretofore on behalf of the
12. It is agreed that measures to control the importation of arms into the Arab territories
will be considered by the two Governments.
I have further the honour to state that, in order to make the agreement complete, His
Majesty's Government are proposing to the Russian Government to exchange notes analogous
to those exchanged by the latter and your Excellency's Government on the 26th April last.
Copies of these notes will be communicated to our Excellency as soon as exchanged.
I would also venture to remind your Excellency that the conclusion of the present agreement
raises, for practical consideration, the question of the claims of
to a share in any partition
or rearrangement of
in Asia, as formulated in article 9 of the agreement of
April, 1915, between
and the Allies.
His Majesty's Government further consider that the Japanese Government should be in-
formed of the arrangements now concluded.
I have, &c.
Documents and Official Sources
officially by the representatives of
to the Peace Conference at Versailles
L'Armenie et la question Armenienne avant, pendant et depuis la guerre.
Paris, 1922. Contains
documents aimed at showing how committed the Allies were to a separate
was for a time an existing, functioning state.
Carnegie Endowment for International Peace. The Treaties of Peace, 1919-1923. 2 vols. New
Dickenson, G. Lowes. Documents and Statements Relating to Peace Proposals and War Aims,
December, 1916-November, 1918.
1919. The Egyptian White Book. Egypt
was never allowed to present its
claims before the Peace Conference.
. Delegation to the Peace Conference. Les Revendications Nationales Egyptiennes.
and Robert C. North. Soviet Russia
and the East, 1920-1927—A Documentary
Survey. Stanford, 1957.
Liban en 1922.
. Journal Officiel, Debats parlementaires, Chambre des Deputes, 1918-1925.
. Journal officiel, Debats parlementaires. Senat,
April 29, 1920.
Giannini, Amedeo. / Documenti Diplomatica della Pace Orientale.
. / Documenti per la Storia della Pace Orientale, 1915-1932.
Rome, 1933. Contains
text of Saint Jean de Maurienne and Tittoni-Venizelos Agreements, as well as the five
minor agreements signed along with the main treaty at Sevres in August, 1920.
3 5 0 BIBLIOGRAPHY
. Admiralty, Intelligence Division, Geographical Section. Manual on the Turanians and
Cabinet Papers, 1918-1920. Public Record Office. Cab. 21, 23, 24, 25, 27, 28, 29.
A source of inestimable value, basic to this study.
Foreign Office. Confidential Prints, Eastern Affairs, 1919-1920. Public Record Office.
Foreign Office. General Correspondence, 1920. Public Record Office, F.O. 371.
Foreign Office, Historical Section. Handbooks prepared under the direction of the
Historical Section of the Foreign Office.
1920. No. 15, "The Eastern Question";
no. 16, "
in Europe"; no. 17, " Albania";
no. 57, "Mohammedan History"; no. 58,
in Asia"; no. 59, " Anatolia";
no. 60, " Syria
and Palestine"; no. 61, " Arabia";
no. 62, "
and Kurdistan"; no. 63, " Mesopotamia";
no. 64, " Islands of the Northern
Eastern Aegean"; no. 65,
no. 66, " France
and the Levant": no. 76, "Persian
G u l f ; no. 162, "Zionism."
Foreign Office. Peace Conference of 1919-1920: British Delegation Correspondence.
Public Record Office. F.O. 608. A mammoth collection, of prime importance for this study.
Includes all dispatches from the
that were forwarded from the Foreign Office
to the Peace Delegation.
Foreign Office. Peace Conference of 1919-1920. Public Record Office, F.O. 373,
Handbooks, 1918-1919; F.O. 374, Acts of the Conferences.
. Parliamentary Debates, Commons, 5th series.
Parliamentary Debates, House of Lords, 5th series.
Parliamentary Papers, 1920, "Agreement between
Parliamentary Papers, 1920. "Correspondence relating to the Adriatic Question."
. Parliamentary Papers, 1920. "Memorandum of Agreement (San Remo, April 24, 1920)
between M. Phillippe Berthelot and Prof. Sir John Cadman." Command 675.
. Parliamentary Papers, 1920. "Treaty between the principle Allies and associated powers
Signed at Sevres, August 10, 1920."
Command 960. London, 1920.
Parliamentary Papers, 1920. "Treaty of Peace with
Signed at Sevres, August
10, 1920." Command 964.
. Parliamentary Papers, 1920. "Tripartite agreement between the
British Empire, France
respecting Anatolia. Signed at Sevres, August 10, 1920." Command 963. London,
. Parliamentary Papers, 1921. "Correspondence between H. M. Government and the
United States Respecting^Economic_Righ_ts in the Mandated Territories." Command 1226.
Parliamentary Papers, 1921. "Draft Mandates for
and Palestine as
Submitted for the Approval of the
Nations." Command 1176. London,
Parliamentary Papers, 1921. "Franco-British Convention,
December 23, 1920, on
Certain Points Connected with the Mandates for
and the Lebanon,
Parliamentary Papers, 1921. "Treaty between the Allied Powers and
Signed at Sevres, August 10, 1920."
Command 1390. London, 1921.
Parliamentary Papers, 1939. "Correspondence between Sir Henry McMahon, His
Majesty's High Commissioner at
and the Sherif Hussein of Mecca,
1916." Command 5957.
BIBLIOGRAPHY 3 5 1
Parliamentary Papers, 1939. "Report of a Committee set up to consider certain
correspondence which took place in the years 1915 and 1916 between Sir Henry McMahon
(His Majesty's High Commissioner in
and the Sherif of Mecca in 1915 and
. Parliamentary Papers, 1939. "Statements Made on Behalf of His Majesty's Government
During the Year 1918 in Regard to the Future Status of Certain Parts of the Ottoman
Empire." Command, 5964.
1939. Contains Hogarth Declaration, Declaration to
the Seven, and the Allenby Pledge.
The Greek White Book. American Hellenic Society, no. 5 and 9.
New York, 1919.
Hurewitz, Jacob C. Diplomacy in the Near and Middle East, A Documentary Record,
1535-1956. 2 vols. New York/l956.
. Superintendent of Government Printing.
in 1920. Calcutta, 1921.
Superintendent of Government Printing.
in 1921-22. Calcutta, 1922.
Unfortunately only one volume in this series of this highly valuable collection has as yet
been published. It covers December, 1918-January, 1919.
Kemal, Mustapha Pasha. A Speech Delivered by Ghazi Mustapha Kemal, President of the
and constitutes Kemal's account of the Turkish revolution.
^ Die Dokumente zur Rede vom 15 bis 20 Oktober, 1927.
n.d. Contains the
text of the documents referred to by Kemal in his marathon speech. Documents are in
"The King-Crane Report on the
Editor and Publisher 55 (December 2, 1922): 1-27.
Lloyd George, David. British War A ims; Statement by the Right Honorable David Lloyd George,
Respecting Terms of Peace by President Wilson and the Secretary of State.
Conference des preliminaires de paix. Composition et fonctionnement, V avril, 1919.
Fonctionnement de la conference, l octobre, 1919.
minutes of various committees. Not useful for the topic under consideration.
La Paix de Versailles. 12 vols.
1930. Collection of documents, including the
"The Secret Treaty Dividing
Nation 3 (December, 1920): 697-99. Text of the Tripartite
Pact signed at Sevres, with a good map.
Tittoni, T., and V. Scialoja. "L'ltalia alia Conferenza della Pace, Discorsi et Documenti.
1921. Speeches of the two before the Chamber of Deputies and the Senate.
Ottomane a la Conference de la Paix. n.p., n.d. A statement bitterly attacking most of
the provisions of the proposed treaty.
Turquie. Ministere des affaires etrangeres, Le livre rouge. La question de Mossoul de la signature
du traite d'armistice de Moudros (30 Octobre, 1918 au 1 Mars, 1925).
Contains British-Turk correspondence concerning the initial British occupation of
and subsequent British dealings with the Kurds.
and the Armenian Mandate: Message of President Wilson to the Congress,
1910-1929. National Archives,
Political Affairs, 867.00. Washington,
. Department of State. Papers of the American Commission to Negotiate Peace. National
Because of the limited American participation in Washington, D.C. Near East
negotiations, this collection proved far less rewarding than its British counterpart.
Department of State. Papers Relating to the Foreign Relations of the United State,
1919. 2 vols.
Department of State. Papers Relating to the Foreign Relations of the
1920. 3 vols.
Department of State. Papers Relating to the Foreign Relations of the
Papers, 1914-1920. 2 vols. Washington,
Department of State. Papers Relating to the Foreign Relations of the
Conference, 1919. 13 vols. Washington,
1942-47. A documentary record
of great value, including the official minutes of the Council of Ten and the Council of
Before the Peace Congress of 1919: A Memorandum Dealing
with the Rights of
Submitted by Eleutherios Venizelos. American Hellenic Society,
Woodward, E. L., and R. Butler, eds. Documents on British Foreign Policy, 1919-1939, Series
1947-. An indispensable documentary collection, containing much diplomatic
correspondence relative to the
as well as the minutes of the December, 1919,
Anglo-French discussions and the
San Remo, and Boulogne
Personal Papers, Memoirs and Diaries
Abdullah, King. Memoirs of King Abdullah of Trans-Jordan.
Adivar, Halide Edib. The Turkish Ordeal.
Aharonian, Avetis. "From Sardarapat to Sevres and
a political diary." Armenian
Review 15 (Fall, 1962)-17 (Spring, 1964). The installments in these issues deal with the
period examined in this study.
Memorandum of Avetis Aharonian." Nation 108 (April 5, Republic of Armenia
Ahmed Djemal Pasha. Memoirs of a Turkish Statesman, 1913-1919.
New York, 1922.
Armstrong, Harold C. Turkey in Travail.
Baker, Ray S., and William E. Dodd. The Public Papers of Woodrow Wilson. 3 vols. New
Balfour, Arthur J. Papers. On deposit in the
Museum . London,
. Private Papers. On deposit in the Foreign Office archives in the Public Record Office.
Barrere, Camille. "La Conference de
Remo." Revue des deux Mondes 108 (August
193 8): 510-15.
Beadon, Roger H. Some Memories of the Peace Conference.
Beer, George L. Diary at the
Peace Conference, December, 1918-August, 1919. On
deposit in Butler Library.
University . New
York, New York
BIBLIOGRAPHY 3 5 3
Bell, Gertrude L. The Letters of Gertrude Bell. Edited by Lady Bell. 2 vols.
Berenger, Henry, Le Petrole et la
Paris, 1920. Unfortunately, deals
with domestic matters. Admits that the "most instructive" chapter would be one on French
diplomacy regarding petroleum since the armistice, but claims publication at that time would
Bertie, Lord Francis. The Diary of Lord Bertie.
Bliss, General Tasker. Papers. On deposit in the Library of Congress.
Bonar Law, A. Papers. On deposit in the Beaverbrook Library.
Bonsai, Stephen. Suitors and Suppliants: The Little Nations at
, Unfinished Business. Garden City,
Bowman, Humphrey E. Middle East Window.
Buckler, William L. Papers. On deposit in Sterling Memorial Library,
New Yale University
ed. Gertrude Bell: From her Personal Papers, 1914-1926. London,
Callwell, C. E. Field Marshal Sir Henry Wilson, His Life and Diaries, 2 vols.
1927. A valuable contemporary source.
Cambon, Paul, Correspondance, 1870-1924. Edited by Henri Cambon. 3 vols.
Extremely valuable collection of letters written by the French ambassador in
Catroux, Georges. Deux Missions en Moyen-Orient (1919-1922).
Cecil, Viscount Robert. A Great Experiment.
York, 1941. Cecil's autobiography, unfortu-
nately of little use.
Cecil of Chelwood, Viscount E. A. Robert. Papers. On deposit in the
British Museum London,
Charles-Roux, Franqois. Souvenirs diplomatique; une grande ambassade a
Churchill, Winston S. The World Crisis: The Aftermath, 1918-1928.
New York, 1929.
comments by one of the leaders of British opposition to both Greek claims and the Turkish
Clemenceau, Georges. Discours de paix, publies par la Societe des amis de Clemenceau.
. Grandeur and Misery of Victory,
Crespi, Silvio, Alia Defesa d'ltalia in Guerra e a
Diario, 1917-1919. Milan, 1937.
Crowe, Sir Eyre. Private Papers. On deposit in the Foreign Archives in the Public Record
Office. F.O. 800/243. Of little value for the purposes of this work.
Curzon of Kedleston, Lord George Nathaniel. Correspondence and Papers. On deposit in
the Commonwealth Relations
Vols. 594-97 contain the War Office,
Cabinet Papers, 1919. Curzon's personal papers for the peace conference period were not
available to the public in 1967.
. Private Papers. On deposit in the Foreign Office Archives of the Public Record Office.
F.O. 800/151. Of minimal value for the purposes of this study.
D'Abernon, Edgar V. The Diary of an Ambassador, Viscount D'Abernon. 3 vols.
Day, Clive. Papers. On deposit in Sterling Memorial Library,
Yale University New Haven,
Edib, Halide. See Adivar, Halidd Edib.
Garnett, David. The Letters of T. E. Lawrence.
Gates, Caleb F. Not to me Only.
, 1940. Princeton,
Georges-Gaulis, Berthe. La Nouvelle Turquie.
Giolitti, Giovanni. Memoirs of My Life.
Grew, Joseph C. Papers. On deposit in Houghton Library,
. Turbulent Era: A Diplomatic Record of Forty Years. 2 vols.
New York, 1952.
Hancock, W. K., and Jean Van Der Poel, eds. Selections from the Smuts Papers. 4 vols.
Hankey, Lord Maurice P. The Supreme Control at the
Peace Conference 1919: A Commen-
1963. Unfortunately tends heavily toward being just a synopsis of the official
minutes of the Conference.
Harbord, James G. Leaves from a War Diary.
York, 1925. Ends with the armistice.
Hardinge of Penhurst, Lord Charles H. Old Diplomacy: The Reminiscences of Lord Hardinge
Covering the Years 1880-1924. London,
Hohler, Sir Thomas B. Diplomatic Petrel.
1942. Ends with Armistice Day, 1918,
and his appointment to
The Ordeal of Woodrow Wilson.
1958. Primarily a memoir of Hoover's
own connection with
during and after the Peace Conference.
House, Edward M. Papers. On deposit in Sterling Memorial Library.
New Yale University
A well-indexed, large collection of material, including much on the
first six months of the Peace Conference. In addition to official documents the collection
includes House's diary and personal correspondence.
Diary. Edited by Keith Middlemas. New York,
1969-. Vol. 1,
Lansing, Robert. Diary on deposit in Library of Congress.
of little value Washington,
in terms of this study.
. The Peace Negotiations: A Personal Narrative.
Lawrence, Thomas E. The Home Letters of T. E. Lawrence and His Brothers.
. Revolt in the Desert.
. Seven Pillars of Wisdom.
T. E. Lawrence to his Biographer, Liddell-Hart.
. T. E. Lawrence to his Biographer, Robert Graves.
Lloyd George, David. Papers. On deposit in the Beaverbrook Library.
A large, magnificently indexed collection including both official documents and personal
. The Truth A bout the Peace Treaties. 2 vols., (pages numbered consecutively).
1938. A distinct apologia, yet quite valuable.
Luke, Sir Harry.. War Memoirs. Cities and Men: An Autobiography. 2 6 vols.
1933-37. vols. London,
Malcolm, Sir Ian. Lord Balfour, A Memory.
Mantoux, Paul. Les Deliberations du Conseil des Quatre (24 mars - 28 juin, 1919). 2 vols.
no official minutes were kept. Based on notes taken by the chief interpreter, the actual
words of the participants are recorded, and much of value that fails to appear in the official
minutes, especially differences of opinion, can be found.
Marescotti, Count Luigi A. Guerra diplomatica; ricordi eframmenti di diario (1914-1919).
1936. Contains records of Council of Four meetings of April 17-24 and May 7-June 2.
Nouvi ricordi e frammenti di diario.
1938. Contains minutes of Council of
Four meetings in June, 1919. Also has memoranda and documents on the proceedings
leading to the Saint Jean de Maurienne Agreement.
Diary, 1917-1956. London, 1959.
Mezes, Sidney. Papers. On deposit in Butler Library,
, New Columbia
University, New York
Miller, David H. My Diary at the Conference of
with Documents. 21 vols. New York,
1928. An extensive and highly valuable collection of miscellaneous documents relating to
the. work of the Peace Conference.
Mordacq, Jean J., Le Ministere Clemenceau, 4 vols.
Nicolson, Harold, Peacemaking, 1919.
1933. An important diary written by a member
of the Greek Committee and an advisor to the Big Four on the question of the division
of European and Anatolian
Nitti, Francesco. The Wreck of
Orlando, Vittorio E. Memorie, 1915-1919. Edited by R. Mosca.
Milan, 1960. Contains general
reminiscences and comments on the Peace Conference.
Patrick, Mary M. Under Five Sultans.
Pech, Edgar. Les Allies et Turquie.
1925. Day-by-day diary of a Frenchman in Constan-
tinople. Objective treatment.
Philby, Harry St. J. B. Arabian Days.
Pichon, Jean. Sur la Route des Indes.
1932. Good discussion of some of the Armenian
Poincare, Raymond. Au Service de la
neuf annees de souvenirs. 10 vols. Paris,
Volume 10 has a brief discussion concerning Anglo-French friction over the Turkish armi-
stice, and early Greek ambitions to land at
Polk, Frank L. Papers. On deposit in Sterling Memorial Library,
Yale University New Haven,
in the summer of 1919.
Rawlinson, Sir Alfred. Adventures in the Near East, 1918-1922.
New York, 1924. Sheds
on British attempts to sound out Kemal in the fall of 1919.
Riddell, Baron George A. Lord RiddeU's Intimate Diary of the Peace Conference and After,
Rodd, Sir James Rennell. Social and Diplomatic Memories, 1884-1919.
Ryan, Sir Andrew. The Last of the Dragomans.
1951. Memoirs of a member of
the British High Commission in
Samuel, Viscount Herbert L. Grooves of change, a book of Memoirs by the Rt. Hon. Viscount
Seymour, Charles. The Intimate Papers of Colonel House. 4 vols.
Boston, 1926. A valuable
collection based upon
work in the House Papers currently on deposit at Yale
. Letters from the
Peace Conference. Edited by H. B. Whiteman, Jr. New Haven,
Sforza, Count Carlo. Diplomatic
Since the Treaty of Versailles. , New
. Makers of Modern
1930. Was high commissioner in Constan-
tinople. Admits contacts with and sympathy for Kemalist forces from the time the resistance
was organized. A study of leading personalities, full of first person reminiscences.
Shotwell, James T. At the
Peace Conference. New York, 1937.
1961. Of little value for the purposes of this study.
Papers. On deposit in Butler Library,
University . New
York, New York
Sonnino, Baron Sidney. Papers relating to World War I in the Archive of Baron Sidney
University Microfilms, 1969. Reels 17-24, 41-54. A vast and Ann Arbor, Mich.
important collection, primarily of official
telegrams, but including in
the last Italian
eight reels a miscellaneous collection of papers, correspondence, and memoranda.
Steed, H. Wickham. Through Thirty Years, 1892-1922, A Personal Narrative, 2 vols.
1924. Interesting sidelights provided by a man who at the time of the Peace Conference
was editor of the Times (
Thompson, Charles T. The Peace Conference Day by Day: A Presidential Pilgrimage leading
to the Discovery of
Townshend, Sir Charles V. F. My Campaign.
Vansittart, Lord Robert. The Mist Procession: The Autobiography of Lord Vansittart.
Weizmann, Chaim. Trial and Error. 2 vols.
Westermann, William L. Personal Diary at the Peace Conference in
1919. On deposit in Butler Library,
University . A member New
York, New York
of the Greek Committee, Westermann bitterly opposed President Wilson's support of Greek
. Papers. On deposit in the
Museum . London,
Wilson, Woodrow. Papers. Series V-A, Peace Conference, 1919. On deposit in the Library
Of great general use. Washington, D.C.
Wiseman, Sir William. Papers. On deposit in Sterling Memorial Library,
Yale, William. Papers. On deposit in Sterling Memorial Library,
Yale University New Haven,
Near East settlement in
the early fall of 1919.
Yalmin, Ahmed Emin.
in My Time. ,
1956. Memoirs of a Turkish Norman, Oklahoma
Young, Sir Hubert. The Independent Arab.
Adam, George. The Tiger, Georges Clemenceau, 1841-1929.
of Arabia, A Biographical Enquiry. London,
1955. An attempt
to prove that
was little more than a humbug and a fake.
Armstrong, Harold C. Grey Wolf, Mustafa Kemal: An Intimate Study of a Dictator.
Azan, Paul J. Franchet d'Esperey.
Baker, Ray S. Woodrow Wilson and World Settlement. 3 vols. Garden City,
New York, 1923.
Volume 3 contains a collection of documents.
Beaverbrook, William M. Aitken, Baron. The Decline and Fall of Lloyd George.
Benoist-Mechin, Jacques. Le Loup et le leopard, Mustapha Kemal; ou, La Mort d'un empire.
Bruun, Geoffrey. Clemenceau.
, 1943. Some information regarding the
presidential election, nothing regarding the Eastern Question.
Collier, Basil. Brasshat: A Biography of Field-Marshal Sir Henry Wilson.
"Un Diplomate." Paul Cambon, Ambassadeur de France, 1843-1924.
Dugdale, Blanche. Arthur James Balfour. 2 vols.
York, 1937. Contains many documents,
but few pertaining to the Near East settlement. Of particular interest is Balfour's avowal
told early of the existence and content of the secret treaties.
Edwards, H. Hugh. David Lloyd George, The Man and the Statesman. 2 vols.
Erlanger, Philippe. Clemenceau.
Eubank, Keith. Paul Cambon: Master Diplomatist.
, 1960. Norman,
Garrety, John A. Henry Cabot Lodge: A Biography.
Gibbons, Herbert A. Venizelos.
and the Arabian Adventure. New York,
Huddleston, Sisley. Poincare: A Biographical Portrait.
Jones, Thomas. Lloyd George.
, 1951. Cambridge,
Kinross, Lord. Ataturk: A Biography of Mustafa Kemal, Father of Modern
Lansing, Robert. Diary on deposit in Library of Congress.
of little value Washington,
character studies of selected individuals with whom the author was in close contact. Venizelos
is included among the "others."
Leslie, Shane. Mark Sykes, His Life and Letters.
Liddell-Hart, Basil H. T E. Lawrence, In
and After. London, 1943.
Lord, John. Duty, Honor, Empire: The Life and Times of Colonel Richard Meinertzhagen.
Martet, Jean. Georges Clemenceau.
Mikusch, Dagobert von. Mustapha Kemal: Between
and Asia. New York,
Monnerville, Gaston. Clemenceau.
Mosley, Leonard. The Glorious Fault: The Life of Lord Curzon.
New York, 1960.
Mousa, Suleiman. T. E. Lawrence; an Arab View.
Nevins, Allan. Henry White: Thirty Years of American Diplomacy.
New York, 1930.
many excerpts from White's correspondence.
Nicolson, Harold. Curzon: The Last Phase, 1919-1925.
1934. Sympathetic to the
Foreign Office and to policies it tried to follow.
Ascendant: The Rise of Modern Turkey.
London, 1958. A generally
favorable biography of Kemal.
Orga, Irfan, and Margarite Orga. Ataturk.
Owen, Frank. Tempestuous Journey: Lloyd George, His Life and Times,
New York, 1955.
The Life and Letters of Tasker Bliss. New York,
Ronaldshay, Earl of. See Zetland, Lawrence J.
Spender, Harold. The Prime Minister, David Lloyd George.
Street, Cecil J. C. Lord Reading.
1928. Brief comment on Indian Moslem agitation
York, 1964. ,
1930. New Haven, Conn. New York,
1965. York, 1939.
Subsequent scholarship indicates it should be used with caution. Still a useful
The Turkish Problem. Ostrorog, Leon London, 1919. New York,
and France, and
stating that no Near East policy would be successful until the ,
1963. Cambridge, Mass. Oxford, 1958. York, 1965. Asia Minor. London,
1918. Md., 1933. The
most thorough study of the capitulations.
Suarez, Georges. Briand 4 vols.
1940. Vol. 4, 1916-1918.
Thomson, Malcolm. David Lloyd George, The Official Biography.
Waley, Sir David. Edwin Montagu, A Memoir and An Account of His Visits to
. "Life of the Hon. Edwin Samuel Montagu." 2 vols. Typescript.
Office Library. Contains much material not in the published volume. Office, India
Wavell, Sir Archibald P. Allenby, A Study in Greatness. 2 vols.
Weisgal, Meyer W., and Joel Carmichael, eds. Chaim Weizmann, A Biography by Several
Young, Kenneth. Arthur James Balfour; The Happy Life of the Politician, Prime Minister,
Statesman and Philosopher, 1848-1930.
Zetland, Lawrence J., Earl of Ronaldshay. The Life of Lord Curzon, being the authorized
biography of George Nathaniel, Marquess Curzon of Kedleston, K.G. 3 vols.
New York, 1928.
The standard work on Lord Curzon. Volume 3 has extensive material on the
Monographs and General Historical Works
Abbott, George F. Greece and the Allies, 1914-1922.
1922. Generally anti-Venizelos.
Abelous, Frederic. L' Evolution de la Turquie dans ses rapports avec les estrangeres Tou-
Adivar, Halide Edib.
Faces West: A Turkish View of Recent Changes and Their Origin.
Adkisson, Laura M.
Britain and the Kemalist Movement for
University Microfilms, 1958. Should be used with caution. Ann Arbor, Mich.
Adler, Selig. The Uncertain Giant, 1921-1941: American Foreign Policy Between the Wars.
Albin, Pierre. La Conference de la Paix, Paris-Versailles, janvier-juin 1919; documents contem-
1921. Consists of bound index to articles in Le Monde Nouveau Diplomatique
at the Paris Peace Conference. New
Ancel, J. Manuel Historique de la Question d'Orient, 1792-1923.
Anderson, Matthew S. The Eastern Question, 1774-1923.
York, 1966. The best general
Antonius, George. The Arab Awakening: The Story of the Arab National Movement. New
Atamian, Sarkis. The Armenian Community.
Bailey, Thomas A. Woodrow Wilson and the Lost Peace.
Baker, Ray S. What
Did at Paris. New
Bardoux, Jacques. De Paris a Spa.
1921. Has an excellent chapter dealing with French
and British press and public reaction to the publication of the Turkish peace treaty in
Lloyd George et la
Paris, 1923. Anti-Lloyd George, but
also critical of French
Barton, James L. Near East Relief, 1915-1930.
Bass, John F. The Peace Tangle.
Bassett, John S. The
League of Nations,
A Chapter in World Politics. New York,
Beer, George L. African Questions at the
Peace Conference. New York, 1923.
Beloff, Max. Imperial Sunset.
1970. Vol. 1, Britain's
Liberal Empire, 1897-1921.
Berkes, Niyazi. The Development of Secularism in
Twenty Years After. New York,
Bishop, Donald G. The Administration of British Foreign Relations.
1961. Syracuse, N.Y.
Bississo, Saadi. La Politique Anglo-Sioniste en
Black, Cyril E., and Ernst C. Helmreich. Twentieth Century
2d ed. rev. New York,
Blaisdell, Donald C. European Financial Control in the
Empire. New York,
Good survey of the history of the Ottoman Debt.
Bonnefous, Edouard, Historie Politique de la Troisieme Republique. 2d ed. 7 vols.
Vol. 3, L'Apres-Guerre, 1919-1924.
Bourgeois, Emile. Manuel historique de politique etrangere. 4 vols.
Paris, 1893-1926. Volume
4 pertains to the period under consideration.
Bremond, Edouard. La Cilicie en 1919-1920.
. Le Hedjaz dans la Guerre Mondiale.
Brown, Carrol, and Theodore Ion. Persecution of the Greeks in
of the European War. American Hellenic Society, no. 3,
Bruneau, Andre. La France au Levant.
1932. Has text of Gouraud ultimatum to Feisal
in July, 1920.
Buell, Raymond L. Contemporary French Politics.
Bujac, Colonel Emile. Les Campagnes de VArmee Hellenique, 1918-1922.
Bullard, Sir Reader.
and the Middle East from Earliest Times to 1950. London,
Cassavetes, Nicholas J. The Question of
Epirus at the Peace Conference. New York,
1919. Pro-Greek propaganda.
Chastenet, Jacques. Cent ans de Republique. 9 vols.
1970. Vol. 5, Les annees d'illusions,
Chirol, Sir Valentine. The Occident and the Orient.
Cohn, Josef. Englund und Palastina. Berlin, 1931.
Coke, Richard. The Arab's Place in the Sun. London, 1929.
Costopoulo, Stavro. L Empire de VOrient. Paris, 1925.
Cumming, Henry H. Franco-British Rivalry in the Post War Near East. New York, 1938.
Davenport, E. H., and S. R. Cooke. The Oil Trusts and Anglo-American Relations. London,
1923. Good discussion of the organization of the British petroleum executive.
Davison, Roderic, "Turkish Diplomacy from Mudros to Lausanne," In The Diplomats,
1919-1939, edited by Gordon A. Craig and Felix Gilbert. Princeton, N.J., 1953.
Delaisi, Francis. Oil, Its Influence on Politics. London, 1922.
De la Tramerye, Pierre E. The World Struggle for Oil. New York, 1924.
DeNovo, John A. American Interests and Policies in the Middle East, 1900-1939. Minneapolis,
Minn., 1963. Based on extensive research in documentary and manuscript collections as
well as existing secondary sources. An excellent general survey.
Dillon, Emile J. The Inside Story of the Peace Conference. New York, 1920.
Driault, Edouard. La Grand Idee, la Renaissance de VHellenisme. Paris, 1920.
. La Question d'Orient depuis ses origins jusqu'a la paix de Sevres. Paris, 1926.
Driault, Edouard, and Michel Lheretier. Histoire diplomatique de la Grece de 1821 a nos jours.
5 vols. Paris, 1926. Vol 5, La Grece et la grande guerre de la revolution Turque au traite
de Lausanne, 1908-1923. Superceded by documentary collections. Has a good deal on the
deliberations of the Committee on Greek Affairs.
Dukagjin, Basrf Bey, of. Le Monde Oriental et I'Avenir de la Paix. Paris, 1920.
Earle, Edward M. Turkey, the Great Powers and the Bagdad Railway. New York, 1923.
Edib, Halide. See Adivar, Halide Edib.
ESCO Foundation, Palestine, A Study of Jewish, Arab and British Policies. 2 vols. New Haven,
Evans, Laurence. United States Policy and the Partition of Turkey, 1914-1924. Baltimore, Md.,
Fabre-Luce, Alfred. La Crise des Alliances. Paris, 1922. A diatribe against Britain and the
weakness of French Policy.
Faulkner, Harold U. From Versailles to the New Deal. New Haven, Conn., 1950.
Ferriman, Z. Duckett. Greece and Tomorrow. American Hellenic Society, no. 2. New York,
Fisher, Sidney N. The Military in the Middle East. Columbus, Ohio, 1963.
Fitzsimons, M. A. Empire by Treaty: Britain and the Middle East in the Twentieth Century.
Notre Dame, Ind., 1964.
Frangulis, Antoine F. La Grece et la Crise Mondiale. 2 vols. Paris, 1926. Excellent, though
pro-Greek coverage of the question of Greek claims. Anti-Venizelos. Many documents.
Frischwasser-Ra'anan, Heinz F. The Frontiers of a Nation, London, 1955. Good study of
the forces and diplomacy leading to the formation of the Palestine mandate.
Fuad, Ali. La Question des detroits. Paris, 1928.
Gaillard, Gaston. The Turks and Europe. London, 1921. Concerned with the negotiation of
the Treaty of Sevres. Pro-Turkish, anti-British, now outdated by publication of documents.
Chief present value is in discussion of public opinion.
Gelfand, Lawrence E. The Inquiry: American Preparation for Peace 1917-1919. New Haven,
Conn., 1963. By far the most thorough and systematic coverage of the Inquiry yet undertaken.
Georges-Gaulis, Berthe. Angora, Constantinople, Londres: Mustapha Kemal et la politique
anglaise en Orient. Paris, 1922.
. La Question Turque. Paris, 1921.
Giannini, Amedeo. L'Ultima fase della questione Orientale, 1913-1932. Rome, 1933. Conven-
tional. Has map showing division of spheres as formulated in the Tripartite Pact.
Gidney, James B. A Mandate for Armenia Kent, Ohio, 1967.
Gontaut-Biron, Roger de. Comment la France s'est installee en Syrie (1918-1919). Paris, 1922.
Anti-British, but criticizes French government for lack of concrete plans for the Near East.
Gives a good deal of press reaction. Detailed discussion of December, 1919, discussions
between Kemal and Picot.
. D'Angora a Lausanne, les etapes d'une decheance. Paris, 1924.
. La France et la question de Moussoul. Paris, 1923.
Gordon, JLeland J. American Relations with Turkey, 1830-1930; an economic interpretation.
Gottlieb, Wolfram W. Studies in Secret Diplomacy during the First World War. London, 1957.
Good account of the negotiations of the early secret agreements between France, Britain,
and Russia concerning the planned partition of Turkey.
Graves, Philip. Briton and Turk. London, 1941.
Grosbois, Jacques. La Turquie et les detroits. Paris, 1945.
Guinn, Paul. British Strategy and Politics, 1914-1918. Oxford, 1965.
Hacobian, A. P. Armenia and the War. New York, n.d.
Haddad, George. Fifty Years of Modern Syria and Lebanon. New York, 1950.
Hanna, Paul L. British Policy in Palestine. Washington, D.C., 1942.
Haskins, Charles H., and Robert H. Lord. Some Problems of the Peace Conference. Cambridge,
Mass., 1920. Of little value.
Hellas and Unredeemed Hellenism. American Hellenic Society, no. 11. New York, 1920. Contains
articles concerning Greek claims in Asia Minor. See especially George Bourdon, "The Italians
in the Ottoman Empire."
Helmreich, Ernst C. The Diplomacy of the Balkan Wars, 1912-1913. Cambridge, Mass., 1938.
Hocking, William E. The Spirit of World Politics, with Special Studies of the Near East. New
Hourani, A. H. Syria and Lebanon: A Political Essay. New York, 1946. Maintains that British
and French interests were essentially the same, rather than different, in the area.
House, Edward M., and Charles Seymour, eds., What Really Happened at Paris: The Story
of the Peace Conference, 1918-1919. New York, 1921.
Hovannisian, Richard G. Armenia on the Road to Independence, 1918 Berkeley, Calif., 1969.
Howard, Harry N. The King-Crane Commission. Beirut, 1963.
. The Partition of Turkey, 1913-1923. Norman, Okla., 1931. An admirable and detailed
study; the section dealing with the Treaty of Sevres is based primarily on an examination
of the Miller diary.
Huddleston, Sisley. Peace-making at Paris. London, 1919.
Hudson, Geoffrey F. Turkey, Greece and the Eastern Mediterranean. Oxford, 1939.
Hughes, Serge. The Rise and Fall of Modern Italy. New York, 1967.
Hurewitz, Jacob C. Middle East Dilemmas; the background of United States policy. New York,
Ivanov, Iordan. Les Bulgares devant le Congres de lapaix. Berne, 1919. Has population statistics
purporting to show that Thrace was Bulgarian at the close of the war.
Jackh, Ernst. The Rising Crescent: Turkey Yesterday, Today and Tomorrow. New York, 1944.
Jaschke, Gotthard, and Eric Pritsch. Die Turkei seit dem Weltkriege: Geschichtskalendar,
1918-1928. Berlin, 1929. A useful calendar of events.
Karpat, Kemal. Turkey's Politics: The Transition to a Multi-Party System. Princeton, N.J.,
Kazemzadeh, Firuz. The Struggle for Transcaucasia, 1917-1921. New York, 1951. An important
work, dealing chiefly with events in the area with relatively little emphasis on the workings
of the Peace Conference.
Kedourie, Elie. England and the Middle East: The Destruction of the Ottoman Empire, 1914-1921.
London, 1956. A very valuable study, using a wide variety of sources, including many
Arabic. Concerned generally with events in the Near East and less with the peace negotiations.
Chapter 6 on Syria was particularly valuable for the purpose of this study.
Kirk, George E. A Short History of the Middle East. Washington, D.C., 1949.
Kohn, Hans. A History of Nationalism in the East. New York, 1929. Contains a good analysis
of British interests and connections in the Near East.
. Nationalism and Imperialism in the Hither East. New York, 1932.
La Chesnais, Pierre G. Les peuples de la Transcaucasie pendant la guerre et devant la paix
Larcher, Commandant M., La Guerre Turque dans la Guerre Mondiale. Paris, 1926. Concerned
primarily with Turkey's participation in the war.
Laroche, Jules. Au Quai D'Orsay avec Briand et Poincare, 1913-1926. Paris, 1957.
Lenszowski, George. The Middle East in World Affairs. 2d ed. rev. Ithaca, N.Y., 1956.
Leslie, Shane. Salutation to Five. London, 1951.
Lewis, Bernard. The Emergence of Modern Turkey. New York, 1961.
Lewis, Geoffrey L. Turkey. London, 1955.
The Liberation of the Greek People in Turkey. London, 1919.
Loder, John de Vere. The Truth about Mesopotamia, Palestine and Syria. London, 1923.
Contains a good account of the Mesopotamia uprising of 1920.
Longrigg, Stephen. Iraq, 1900 to 1950. New York, 1956.
. Oil in the Middle East: Its Discovery and Development. New York, 1954.
. Syria and Lebanon Under the French Mandates. New York, 1958. Thorough.
Loris-Melikov, La Revolution russe et la nouvelles republiques transcaucasiennes. Paris, 1920.
Loti, Pierre, La Mort de Notre Chere France en Orient. Paris, 1920. Good example of French
pro-Turk attitude. Hates Greeks and British. Contains a document which is claimed to
be the secret Anglo-Turk agreement of September 12, 1919.
. Les Allies qu'il nous faudrait. Paris, 1919. A collection of pro-Turk essays.
Lugan, Alphonse. Les Problemes internationaux et le Congres de la Paix. Paris, 1919. French
Luke, Harry C. Mosul and its Minorities. London, 1925.
Luquet, J. La Politique des mandates dans le Levant. Paris, 1923.
Lyautey, Pierre. Le Drame oriental et le Role de la France. Paris, 1924.
Lybyer, Albert H. The Question of the Near East. New York, 1921.
Macartney, Maxwell, and Paul Cremona. Italy's Foreign and Colonial Policy, 1914-1937. New
McCallum, Robert B. Public Opinion and the Last Peace. New York, 1944.
Mandelstam, Andre. La sociite des nations et les puissances devant le probleme armenien. Paris,
1926. Good treatment of the Armenian question.
Manuel, Frank. The Realities of American Palestine Relations. Washington, D.C., 1949. A
thorough study, utilizing all available materials in Washington.
Marlowe, John. A History of Modern Egypt and Anglo-Egyptian Relations, 1800-1956. 2d ed.
Hamden, Conn., 1965.
Marston, Frank S. The Peace Conference of 1919: Organization and Procedure. New York,
Marwick, Arthur, Britain in the Century of Total War. Boston, 1968.
. The Deluge: British Society and the First World War. Boston, 1965.
Massey, William T. Allenby's Final Triumph. London, 1920.
Maurice, Sir Frederick B. The Armistices of 1918. New York. A critical discussion of events
leading to the signing of the armistices. Feels Britain justified, but not judicious, in signing
alone an armistice the terms of which were too hastily formulated.
Mayer, Arno J. Politics and Diplomacy of Peacemaking: Containment and Counterrevolution
at Versailles, 1918-1919. New York, 1967. An excellent study, interrelating national domestic
situations with the work of the Peace Conference.
Mears, Eliot G., ed. Modern Turkey, New York, 1924.
Mileff, Milu. La Bulgarie et les Detroits. Paris, 1927.
Mills, John S., and M. B. Chrussachi. The Question of Thrace—Greeks, Bulgars and Turks.
London, 1919. A series of maps aimed at showing that historically Thrace has always been
Greek rather than Turkish or Bulgarian.
Miller, David H. The Drafting of the Covenant. 2 vols. New York, 1928.
Minorskii, Vladimir F. The Mosul Question.
Moment in the Middle East, 1914-1956. Baltimore,
Between the Wars, 1918-1940. Chicago,
Mowat, Robert B. A History of European Diplomacy, 1914-1925. 3 vols.
Mowry, George E. The Urban Nation, 1920-1960.
France and the
Arab Middle East, 1914-1920. London,
Noble, George B. Policies and Opinions at
1919. New York, 1935.
Northedge, Frederick S. The Troubled Giant:
Among the Great Powers, 1916-1939.
Paillares, Michel. Le Kemalisme devant les Allies.
Pallis, Alexander A. Greece's Anatolian Venture and After.
Papadopoulos, Alexander. Persecutions of the Greeks in
before the European War.
Pernot, Maurice. La Question Turque.
1923. An objective study, tending to indict both
two powers learned to cooperate.
Peters, Richard. The Story of the Turks: From Empire to Democracy.
New York, 1959.
St. J. B. Arabia. New
Phillipson, Coleman, and Noel Buxton. The Question oftheBosphorus and
Pichon, Jean. Le Portage du Proche-Orient.
Powell, Edward A. The Struggle for Power in Moslem
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Price, Clair. The Rebirth of
New York, 1923.
Price, M. Philips. A History of
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Puaux, Rene\ Constantinople et la Question d'Orient.
1920. Well-argued pro-Greek
League of Nations,
is opposed to British and French imperialism in
La Deportation et le Rapatriement des Grecs en Turquie.
Redan, Pierre. La Cilicie et le probleme Ottoman.
Richard, Henry. La Syrie et la Guerre.
1916. A vehement advocate of vigorous French
action in a large
Robinson, Richard D. The
A Case Study in National Development. First
Royal Institute of International Affairs. British Interests in the
Mediterranean and Middle East.
Middle East, a Political and
Economic Survey. 3d ed. London,
Sachar, Howard M. The Emergence of the
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"Europe's Perplexity over the Upheaval in Turkey." Current Opinion 67 (December,
"Explosive Conditions in the Near East." World's Work 40 (May, 1920):20-22.
"The Fate of Constantinople." New Statesman 14 (January 10, 1920):396-97.
France. Ministeres de la Guerre et des Affaires Etrangeres, Bulletin periodique de la presse
Italienne. Paris, December, 1919-August, 1920. A good summary of Italian press attitude.
France, Anatole. "Greece and the Peace." L'Humanite, February 3, 1919.
Frangulis, A. F. "Les Revendications de la Grece." Le Monde Nouveau Diplomatique et
Economique, March 6, 1919, pp. 7-10.
Freer, Mary R. "Did President Wilson Contradict Himself on the Secret Treaties?" Current
History 30 (June, 1929): 4 3 5 ^ 3 .
Fregier, C. "Lettres d'Athenes." Journal des Debats, February 7, 1919, pp. 228-29.
Froidevaux, H. "Au lendemain de la signature du traite de Sevres." L'Asie Francaise, July-
August, 1920, pp. 212-14.
. "L'Announce de la Paix avec Turquie." L'Asie Francaise, January, 1920, pp. 6-10.
. "Les Interets economiques francais dans le Levant et le Traite de paix avec la Tur-
quie." L'Asie Francaise, June, 1920, pp. 172-75.
"Le Projet de Traite avec la Turquie et la France." L'Asie Franqaise, May, 1920,
"The Future of Turkey," Spectator 123 (July 12, 1919):40-41. Claims Lloyd George's offer
of Constantinople to the Turks in January, 1918, was made only as an inducement for
immediate Turkish withdrawal from the war.
Gates, C. F. "Making of the Turkish Republic." Current History 34 (April, 1931): 89-93.
Gautherot, Gustave. "Syria and the Hedjaz: A French View." Current History 12 (April,
1920): 113-16. Reprinted from La France Nouvelle.
Gauvain, A. "Les Allies en Orient." Journal des Debats, June 25, 1920, pp. 1034-35.
Gerard, J. W. "Civilization's Surrender to Barbarism: Proposed Retention of the Turks in
Europe." Independent 101 (March 6, 1920): 345.
Great Britain and the Near East. See The Near East.
Great Britain. General Staff, War Office. Daily Review of the Foreign Press: Allied Press
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Haim, Sylvia G. "The Arab Awakening: A Source for Historians." Die Welt des Islams, n.s.
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Abdullah, 273 Anglo-French Declaration, 1918, 9
Adalia, 18, 94 Anglo-French September Agreement, 141-43,
Adana, 18 151n.40
Adrianople, 85, 266 Anglo-Persian Oil Company, 210, 212, 305
Aegean Fleet, 13 Arabia, 121
Aegean Sea: Bulgarian access to, 153-54, 156, Arab territories: Turkish claims to, 110
157-58, 266 Arabs: claims before Peace Conference,
Aharonian, Avetis, 48, 335 n.39 51-53; and France, 70-72, 139, 213-14; and
Great Britain, 30, 51, 147; independence for,
Ahmed Emin Yalmin, 197 n.6
6, 8-9, 23; negotiations with Zionists, 57-58;
Aidin, town of, 162
uprising, 1916, 6. See also Syria
Aiden, vilayet of, 40; Greek involvement in,
Armenia, 24, 121, 272, 310 n.9; Allied com-
160-61, 267; Italian-Greek conflict in, 162;
mitments to, 46, 49, 269-70, 286 n. 16, 323;
proposed inter-Allied occupation force in,
American mandate in, 13-14, 50—51,92,115,
167-68; Turkish resistance in, 161
120, 122, 125, 132, 136, 270, 299; Bolshevik
Aivali, 169 threat to, 202, 269; boundaries of, 201-2,
Albania, 43, 84, 164 270, 296-99; claims before Peace Confer-
ence of, 46-51, 61 n.34, 297; and France,
Aleppo, 51, 213
50-51, 61n.36, 142; and Great Britain,
Ali Riza Pasha, 231 13-14, 50-51, 131-36; and Harbord Com-
Allenby, Edmund, 54, 81 n.39, 141, 145, 163 mission, 132; and League of Nations, 203,
Allied high commissioners: and Constantino- 270, 293-94, 310 n.6; military assistance to,
ple, 228 n.67, 280; criticize peace terms, 202-3, 223 n.3, 294-96^310^8, 311n.29;
280-81; and Nationalist movement, 235; and Nationalist movement, 270, 296;
propose bloc policy, 280; and Smyrna, 173, Turkish attitude toward, 47, 110
268-69 Armenians, 201-2, 224 n.4, 253
\met, Admiral, 3 Armistice of Mudros, 3-4, 231, 292
Anatolia, 25, 42, 166-67, 330; Allied and Ataturk. See Mustapha Kemal
American mandates in, 92, 112-15, 119-21,
Azerbaijan, 132-33, 270, 300
123-26,129n.63, 183, 185-87; Greek claims
in, 19, 40, 85-86; Italian claims in, 18-19,
43, 111-12, 160, 188-89; Italian-Greek ri- Balfour, Arthur, 68, 88, 97, 113, 134, 165; and
valry in, 41^4, 113, 162-64 Anatolian partition, 116-17, 130n.67; and
Armenia, 62 n.37; attitude toward Moslems,
Anezzana, Romano, 43
335 n.38; and Bulgaria, 157; and Constan-
Anglo-French Convention, 1904, 276 tinople, 120,191; and Italian-Greek tension,
Anglo-French Convention on Morocco and 163; and Lloyd George, 139; and Montagu,
Egypt (unsigned), 276, 304 335 n.38; and oil rights, 207-8; and Saint
63n.59, 140, 15On.33; and Tittoni, Baku, 270, 300 Caucasus:
British military evacuation of, Bell, Gertrude,
139, 150n.28 Central Syrian Committee, 54 United States
Near East involvement, Cilicia, 4, 61 n.36, 214; Armenian
claim to, Black Sea, 120 Boulogne, Allied
conference at, 318 Bristol, Mark,
241 n.20, 311 n.29; and Smyrna, Smyrna, 100,
168; and Syria,
65, 68, 82 n.49; Wilson, 25 Bulgaria:
access to Aegean Sea, 156; bounda- Constantinople Agreement, 1915, 5, 7 Derby, Edward,
36 n.70, 293 Constantinople, 40, 121, 324, 330;
Allied mili- De Robeck, John, 191, 233, 236, 237, 268-69, Dodecanese Islands,
6, 42, 43, 84-85, 164, 320
Balfour (continued) Calthorpe, Arthur, 3, 105 n.68, 161, 191, 233
Jean de Maurienne Agreement, 101 n.2;and 234
Cambon, Paul, 6, 17, 71, 79 n.2, 229 n.84, 251,
159; and treaty enforcement, 5; and wartime
285; critical of Clemenceau, 130 n.68,
224 n.21; and
152 n.57; critical of Lloyd George, 152n.57,
Zionist aims, 140
333 n. 17; and French presidential election,
Balfour Declaration, 1917, 7, 10, 24, 57, 58, 221; predicts disaster for Turkish peace
324 treaty, 286
Baker, Ray S., 129 n.44 Capitulations, 231, 250-51, 263n.27
Batum, 135, 201, 270-72, 299-300 131-36, 140; Italian mandate in, 132-33
Beer, George, 36 n.73, 80 n. 17 Central Islamic Society, 216
Beloff, Max, 226 n.54 Central Territorial Committee, 86-89, 91
Berard, Victor, 17
Chaltaljah line, 219, 266
Berenger, Henry, 208, 212, 324
Chinda, Sutemi, 246
Berthelot, Philippe, 194, 198n.29, 222, 254;
203,297; and Constantinople, Churchill, Winston, 317,
322, 324; and Ana-
193, 196, 219; critical of
States, 306; tolian partition, 130 n.67; and
206-7; and Nationalist move- ple, 191, 216, 217-18, 279; and enforcement
ment, 237-38; and oil rights, 211-12, 275; of peace treaty, 279; and
Smyrna, 99; and
and Yale plan, 145
Bishop, Donald, 226 n.54
49; French involvement in, 4, 16, 25, 135,
140, 252-53; proposed American mandate
Blaisdell, Donald, 250-51 in, 120; and Turkish nationalists, 183-84,
Bliss, Howard, 54, 56, 62n.53 252-53, 277
Bliss, Tasker, 37 n.84, 96, 105 n.58, 148 n.2, Clayton, Gilbert, 72
60n.l0, 90, 104 n.56 Clemenceau, Georges, 61 n.24, 165, 329; and
Bloc policy towards
280-81 Allenby, 163, 177n.51; and Anatolian par-
tition, 114, 115, 123-24, 185-86; and Ar-
Boghos Nubar Pasha, 47, 61 n.34
menia, 203; and
Bolsheviks: military advance on Batum, 271, 189-90, 192-93; domestic political pressures
299; and Mustapha Kemal, 325; and Rus- on, 76; and Feisal, 64-65, 70-72, 79 n.2,
sian civil war, 202, 217, 299 146-47,213-14; and French imperial policy,
Bolshevism, 4, 325 17, 34n.42, 122; and French military oc-
Bonin-Longare, Lelio, 42, 43 cupation of
134; and Great Bri-
tain, 122, 187; and Italian territorial claims,
visit of, 1918,
Bowman, Isaiah, 38 17-18; loses presidential election, 220-22;
Briand, Aristide, 79 n.2 and
17-18, 34n.45, 206, 225n.28;
and oil rights, 209; and
105n.68, 161, 286 n. 12
and Weizmann, 63 n.62; and Woodrow
British cabinet: opposes Anatolian partition,
120, 121, 130n.67; repudiates December,
Coal mines. See
Commission of Inquiry:
British press, 243, 314-15
Brusa, 22,316,319; as possible Turkish capital,
Commission of Inquiry:
115, 189, 191
commissioners on, 75; attitude of the powers
toward, 68-70, 74, 75-79; British commis-
ries of, 40, 157-58, 174 n.l; peace treaty
sioners named to, 73; dispatch of, 56, 66-67;
with, 88, 158
requests for, 53, 54. See also King-Crane
Cadman, John, 207-8, 209, 212 Committee of Foreign Ministers and Ambas-
Caliphate, 110, 121, 191, 216-17 sadors, 242-43
Committee of Military and Naval Experts, 295 Daily Telegraph (
Union and Progress
(C.U.P.), Damad Ferid Pasha, 109, 181, 231, 235, 316
4, 107-9, 230, 233
Committee on Greek and Albanian Affairs. Daoud Bey Mammon, 56
See Greek Committee
Davis, John, 133, 152 n.49, 284
tions at, 333 n.6; and Nationalist movement,
Day, Clive, 22, 41, 89, 102n.20
De Caix, Robert, 145, 316
importance of, 285
Declaration to the Seven, 1918, 8-9
Dedeagatch, 85, 156, 266
Congress of Syrian notables, 273
Defrance, Albert, 233
Conservative Party, 10-12, 191
Denikin, Anton, 132, 217, 269, 299
tary command in, 168, 282-83; Allied oc-
cupation of, 278-82, 289n.49 and n.55,
Deschanel, Paul, 221
307-8; American mandate in, 92, 120, 122,
125, 154, 155, 173, 189; as Moslem Holy D'Esperey, Franchet. See Franchet d'Esperey,
city, 117, 228n.71; as Turkish capital, 118, Louis
128n.41, 182; British repudiate December,
1919, agreement on, 215-19; December,
1919, Anglo-French agreement on, 192-94; Eastern Question, 5, 31, 321, 331
future of, 14-15, 23; Turkish expulsion
from, 182, 186, 189-90, 191, 193, 195-96;
Edmonds, C. J., 312n.52
Turkish retention of, 243-44: See also, Sul-
tan: in Constantinople Egypt, 110, 275-76, 304
Egyptian Public Debt, 276-77
Cornwallis, Kinahan, 145
Enos-Midia Line, 42, 266
Council of Four: creation of, 64
Enver Pasha, 230
Council of Mount Lebanon, 56
Epirus, Northern, 39, 43, 84
Council of Ten, 36n.71; response to Turkish
Erzerum, 270, 296-98
Crane, Charles, 75, 81 n.25, 136
Cyprus, 40, 60n.l9, 110, 320
European settlement: and French Near East
Crowe, Eyre, 45, 60n.l9, 102 n. 11, 167, 237;
supports Greek claims in Anatolia, 93,
Feisal, Emir, 52-53,64-65, 145; and agreement
Curzon, George, 71, 133, 184, 325, 328,
with Weizmann, 57-58; British subsidy to,
329-30; and Allied fiscal control over Tur-
147, 151 n.39; French subsidy to, 142, 147;
key, 195; and Armenia, 148 n.4, 201, 297;
and King-Crane Commission, 137; and
and Constantinople, 120, 182, 190, 191,
negotiations with Clemenceau, 70-72,
192-93, 218-19, 220, 262 n.6, 336n.41; and
79n.2. 81n.35, 147, 213-14; protests
Egyptian Public Debt Commission, 276-77;
Anglo-French September Agreement, 146;
and enforcement of peace treaty, 179-80,
refuses invitation to San Remo conference,
197 n.4, 237, 278, 281; and French Foreign
273; seeks American mandate, 67; and
Legion, 258-59; and League of Nations, 294,
Syrian independence movement, 137, 273;
335 n.38; and Nationalist movement, 234,
and Woodrow Wilson, 52
235, 237; and oil rights, 207-8, 210-11;
opposes Anatolian partition, 116, 130 n.67; Financial Commission, 194, 246-48
and Pichon, 179; and Rawlinson, 240 n.8; Fisher, Herbert, 192
rejects proposed bloc policy, 281; and
Fitzmaurice, Maurice, 161
Smyrna administration, 268; and Straits
Commission, 246; and supposed secret Fiume, 43, 95, 111; and Anatolia, 118, 120,
British treaty with Turkey, 181; and Tripar- 124
tite Pact, 254, 293; and proposed plan for Five Particulars, 1918, 9
a Turkish peace, 238-39, 330
Foch, Marshal, 295
Four Ends, 1918, 9 12-14; and State Bank of Morocco, 276;
Four Principles, 1918, 8 Straits policy of, 190-91; and Suez Canal
Fourteen Points, 1918, 8 rights," 275-76; and supposed secret treaty
with Turkey, 181-82
France, 53, 184-85, 229 n. 83, 262 n. 15, 277,
Greece, 45, 164, 310 n.6; claims before Peace
288n.41; and Arabs, 70-72, 213-14; and
Conference, 39-41; and negotiations with
Armenia, 294; concern regarding European
Italy, 42-44, 94; and Smyrna, 95-96, 101,
settlement, 16, 17-18; and Constantinople,
188, 267 (see also Smyrna); and Tittoni-
196, 228n.75; 262 n. 15, 278-79; and Egyp-
Venizelos Agreement, 164-65, 320; and
tian Public Debt Commission, 276-77; and
Turkish nationalists, 316-19, 321
Greek claims in Anatolia, 41, 86, 286 n.4,
326; and Heraclea coal mines, 292-93; and Greek Committee, 46, 83, 102 n. 11, 154, 267;
Kurdistan, 205, 301; and London confer- report of, 84-86
ence, 222, 285; and mandate in Anatolia, Greenwood, Hamar, 211, 275, 305
114, 119, 122-23, 126; Near East policy, 7, Greenwood-Berenger Agreement, 212, 214,
15-16, 55-56, 82n.49, 195, 325-26; and oil
226 n.52, 274-75, 304
rights, 206, 207, 211-12, 274, 304-7; opposes
Grey, Edward, 7
League responsibility in Armenia, 310 n.6;
and Ottoman Debt, 248-49; public opinion
in, 16-17,65, 315; and religious protectorate Hama, 51, 213
in Palestine, 302-3; and Suez Canal rights,
Hankey, Maurice, 92, 128n.41
275-76; and supposed Anglo-Turkish secret
Harbord, James, 198 n. 19
agreement, 182-83; and Turkish Nationalist
movement, 183-84,234-36, 237-38, 318, 326 Harbord Commission, 132, 183, 198 n. 19, 233
Hardinge, Charles, 45, 88, 235
Franchet D'Esperey, Louis, 25, 108, 168-69,
282-83 Harmsworth, Cecil, 161
Frangulis, Antoine, 34 n.42 Haskell, William, 148 n.l
French Foreign Legion, 258-59 Heck, Lewis, 47, 90, 107
French press, 128n.33, 150n.29; anti-British Heraclea coal mines, 113, 292-93
attitude, 68, 138-39; British irritation with, High commissioners. See Allied high com-
150n.24; and Constantinople, 219, 243; missioners
reaction to treaty terms, 315
Hindu nationalists. See Swaraj movement
Hirtzel, Arthur, 34 n.34
Hogarth, David, 73, 145
Gandhi, Mohandas, 216
Hogarth Message, 1918, 7-8
Ganem, Chekri, 54-55
Hohler, Thomas, 191, 228 n.71, 235-36
Garnett, David, 145-46
Holy Place, 121, 303
Gelfand, Lawrence, 36n.73
Horns, 51, 213
Gendarmerie, Turkish, 258, 264 n. 52
House, Edward, 67, 88, 90-91; and American
Georgia: possible Italian mandate in, 132-33;
Near East mandates, 50, 92
and Batum, 270-72, 299-300
Hussein, Sherif of Mecca, 6, 62n.53, 66
Giolitti, Giovanni, 319
Hythe, Allied conference at, 318
Gontaut-Biron, Roger de, 34 n.42
Gouraud, Henri, 145, 213
Gout, Jean, 79 n.2, 80 n.25 "Inquiry," The, 21
Government of India, 14-15, 34 n.34, 117,216 Ismid Peninsula, 316, 319
Italian press: reaction to treaty terms, 315
Great Britain, 81 n.38, 184-85, 228 n.70, 285;
and Armenia, 62 n.37,294,310 n.6; imperial Italy, 3 2 n . l l , 81 n.38, 132, 159, 285, 326-27;
policy of, 7, 11-15, 33 n.25, 45-46, 173, claims in Anatolia, 94-95, 119, 128n.43,
324-25; indifference of, to economic and 129n.46, 129 n.54, 160, 164, 188-89; and
business interests, 226 n.54; and Italian ter- Caucasus mandate, 132-33; and enforce-
ritorial claims, 111-20, 127 n.23; and Kur- ment of peace treaty, 294; and Greek ambi-
distan, 204-5, 301-2; 1918 elections in, tions in the Near East, 42-44, 85-86, 94,
10-12; oil rights of, 206-13, 274-75, 304-7; 97, 105n.61, 155, 267, 318, 320; and Hera-
and Ottoman Debt, 248-49; Petroleum Ex- clea coal mines, 292-93; Near East claims,
ecutive, 207; public opinion in, 11, 14, 6, 7, 18-20; and oil rights negotiations, 306;
33n.21, 139, 191, 314; rivalry with France, public opinion in, 95, 98, 315; seeks Turkish
friendship, 94-95, 197 n.6 (see also Sforza, 130 n.67, 186; and pro-Greek attitude, 45,
Carlo); strained relations with Allies, 18-20, 93, 172,220,324,333 n. 17, 329; and Smyrna,
95, 223, 278-79; and Tittoni-Venizelos 96, 100, 267; and Sykes-Picot Agreement,
Agreement, 164-65, 319-20; and Zionists, 33 n.25; and Syria, 65, 66, 79, 140-41; and
57 Tripartite Pact, 255; on Turkish claims, 110;
and Venizelos, 219, 329, 336 n.51; and Wil-
son, 15, 91, 294
Japan, 245-46, 248
Lodge, Henry Cabot, 23
Jewish National Home: See Palestine: Zionist
London conference. See Conference of Lon-
Jordan River, 214
London, Treaty of, 1915, 6, 41, 83-84, 111,
Jusserand, Jules, 284
Long, Walter, 209, 225 n.34, 324
Long-Berenger Agreement, 208-9, 304
Kerr, Philip, 30
Lybyer, Albert, 22, 41, 80n.24, 98, 99, 102 n.6
Kidston, George, 184, 202-3
King, Henry, 75, 81 n.25, 136
King-Crane Commission, 139; report of, McMahon, Henry, 6, 73, 145
137-38, 150 n.20. See also Commission of Mahmud, Sheikh, 204
Inquiry: Syria Mallet, Louis, 113, 207
Kitchener, Horatio HL, 205 Manchester Guardian, 314
Kurdish-Armenian agreement, 205 Mandates system, 26-27, 31, 36n.73, 323,
Kurdistan, 26, 27, 203-5, 300-301 335 n.38; American participation in, 29,
50-51, 67, 87, 92, 120, 158, 178 n.67, 196 n.2;
Labour Party, 10, 149 n. 13, 191 attitude of powers toward, 113-14; British
Lansing, Robert, 56, 90, 157, 178 n.67 in Anatolia, 197 n.8; and League of Nations,
27, 126; and Sykes-Picot Agreement, 27-28;
Lausanne, Treaty of, 1923, 321
and Syria, 70
Law, Bonar, 149 n. 11
Mantoux, Paul, 64
Lawrence, T. E., 71, 79n.2, 81 n.36, 145
Marash, 253, 277
Marmara, sea of, 120
League of Nations, 24, 253; and Armenia,
16, 30, 53, 214, 302 Libya,
18 Mersina, 47 ,
214, 273 Litani River Mesopotamia, 7, 53, 76, 144; Arab-British Kurdistan, 301-2; and League
of Nations, Mosul, 17-18;
and Nationalist movement, Millerand, Alexandre, 221-22, 242, 329; and North Africa, 275-76, 304 Ottoman Empire: French financial
interest in, Mosul, vilayet
of, 27, 203, 205-7, 226 n.42; Bulgarian interests in, 249-50, 257; military Palestine, 7,
144, 210; Arab policy, 53; bound-
287 n.17, 293-94, 310 n.6; and Batum, 271;
and mandates system, 26-27; and minorities Martet, Jean, 221
260-61; and Tittoni-Venizelos Mayer, Arno, 4
Agreement, 164-65; and Tripartite Pact, 255
Mazarakis, Alexandre, 169-70
Mehmed VI, 107, 126 n.3; issues fetva vs.
Le Temps (Paris), 128n.33, 315 nationalists, 307
Liberal Party, 10, 191
Lloyd George, David, 10-12, 113, 129n.44, conflict in, 273, 302, 323; British mandate
229 n.84, 242, 327-28; and
294, in, 121, 302; oil in, 210-11, 274
296-98; and Balfour, 151 n.34; and British Mezes, Sidney, 102 n. 11, 154; and Greek
military establishment, 333 n. 17; and Com- claims, 86-87, 88, 90; and Westermann, 89,
mission of Inquiry:
73, 80 n.25, 90-91, 103n.28; and Woodrow Wilson, 91,
81 n.39; and
190, 103 n.31
191-92, 219, 243; critical of
Military provisions: in peace treaty, 257-59
283-84, 306-7; and enforcement of peace
Military representatives, Allied and Associated
treaty, 252, 253, 278, 280, 281, 317-18; and
294; and mandates system, 28, 115; and Miller, David H., 90
313n.69; and oil rights, 209-10, 211,
297-98; and Constantinople, 243;
225 n.40,274; and partition of
112, and Heraclea coal mines, 292;
and oil rights,
117-18, 119, 120, 121, 123, 129n.62, 304; renounces French religious protec-
Millerand (continued) tions, 113-14; negotiations with Mezes,
303; and Smyrna, 87-88, 90; and
Milne, George, 163, 235, 237, 267; as com- Nitti, Francesco, 159, 242, 268, 315; and Ar-
168-69, menia, 296; and Constantinople, 243, 279;
282-83 and Holy Places in
303; and Tri-
Milne Commission: report of, 166-67 partite Pact, 255
Milner, Alfred, 30, 65, 113, 130n.67 Noel, Edward, 204
Minorities, 256, 259-61
Nuri Said, 145
Minorities agreement: signing of, 320
Minorities Commission, Peace Conference,
Montagu, Edwin, 117, 324; and Balfour,
Oil rights, 151n.42, 206-13, 274-75, 304-6
335 n.38; and
216, 219; and Lloyd George, 129n.55; op-
poses Anatolian partition, 116, 130 n.67
Vittorio, 66, 159; and Anatolian
partition, 113-14, 124; domestic political
Morning Post (
pressures on, 20, 104 n.45; and Greek oc-
Morocco, State Bank of, 276 cupation of
97-98; offers to aban-
Moslems: anti-British attitude of, 128 n.39; don
in return for Fiume, 118
and caliphate, 121; and
Ottoman Debt, 24, 121, 123, 194, 247-49, 291
216-17; and Holy Places, 121; in British
Indian army, 218
55; liquidation of German, Hungarian, or
Clemenceau concedes to Lloyd George, occupation of, 28-31, 37 n.84; prewar and
17-18, 206-7, 209
wartime concessions in, 250
Mudania, 319 Outlook, 314
Mustapha Kemal, 98, 223, 230, 277-78, 308; ary with
214, 272-73; British policy,
and Allied occupation of
13, 33 n.27, 56, 121; French policy, 16, 57,
307-8; and Bolsheviks, 325; and de Caix, 302-3; water rights, 214, 273; Zionist claims
316; French and Italian friendly advances in, 7, 56-59
to, 309; and Harbord, 233; and Peace Con-
Panderma, 22, 316
ference, 233; and Picot, 183-84, 198n.23;
reaction to peace treaty, 315; and Sforza, Peace Conference: French objections to ne-
176n.34 gotiations in
Peace terms: enforcement of, 4-5, 180, 236,
238-39, 261, 278-82, 295-96, 307, 316-19,
Nationalist-French Cease-Fire Agreement, 330
Nationalist movement (
Petroleum. See Oil rights
180,223, 323; Allied reaction to 232-39,282;
Pichon, Stephen, 16, 53, 56, 65, 66, 138, 179,
296; Bolshevik aid to, 325,
336 n.42; and
Cilicia, 183-184, 277;
opment and program of, 230-32, 277-78, Picot, Georges, 79; and Mustapha Kemal,
239 n.2, 308; impact on
183-84, 189, 198 n.23
ence, 307-9; Italian support for, 197 n.6,
Pipeline: Baku-Batum, 270, 300; Mosul to
309, 327; military campaigns of, 316, 321
Near East: Allied economic spheres of influ- Mediterranean, 206, 208
ence in, 251-59 Poincare, Raymond, 179, 228 n.75
New Statesman (London), 315 Polk, Frank, 141, 155, 165; and Thrace,
Nicolson, Harold, 39, 41, 43; admiration for 156-58; and Turkish treaty, 289 n.64; and
Venizelos, 60 n. 19; and Anatolian partition, Yale Plan, 152 n.49
114, 128n.27, 130 n.67; and Greek claims, Public opinion, 322-23, 331. See also Great
45, 93, 128 n.27; and Greek Committee, 87;
Britain; France; Italy; United States: public
and meeting of British and Italian delega-
Railroads: Adana-Aleppo-Horns-Damascus, 92; British policy, 45-46 (see also Crowe;
30; Allied common control of German Lloyd George; Great Britain: imperial pol-
holdings in, 257; in Anatolia, 237; in Ar- icy); form of administration for, 267-68,
menia, 297; Baghdad line, 273; Baku- 292; Greek atrocities in, 161, 165, 169;
Batum, 270, 300; Mosul-Mediterranean, 73, Greek claims to, 40, 43; Greek military
74, 206, 214, 227n.58, 273; Smyrna-Aidin, occupation of, 95-96, 98, 99-101, 160,
123n.43; in Thrace, 156 170-71; Italian claims to, 43; Turkish sover-
eignty over, 188, 266-69
Rawlinson, Alfred, 240 n.8
Smyrna, sanjak of: boundary of Greek zone
Reparations: German, 93; Ottoman Empire,
in, 163, 167, 267, 292
Sonnino, Baron Sidney, 20, 94, 113, 159; and
Rhodes, 164, 320
Anatolian partition, 124; and Venizelos,
Rodd, Rennell, 175 n.20
42-43; and Woodrow Wilson, 25, 36 n.70,
Romanos, Athos, 42 124
Royal Dutch Shell Combine, 208, 210, 211, Standard Oil Company, 211, 305
Steed, H. Wickham, 80n.23, 144
Rumania: oil rights in, 208
Stirling, Walter, 145
Russia: impact of collapse of, 325; oil rights
Straits, 22; American mandate over, 15, 120,
in, 208; and potential alliance with Turkey,
125, 189; Allied control of, 4-5, 23, 192-93;
217; and Turkish nationalist movement, 217,
demilitarized zone boundaries for, 244;
325; and wartime agreements for Near East
international control commission for, 194,
partition, 5, 7, 51, 83, 205. See also Bolshe-
Suez Canal, 275-76
Rustum Haidor, 145
Sultan Mehmed VI. See Mehmed VI
Ryan, Andrew, 191
Sultan, as holder of an office: as caliph, 117,
191-93; whether to locate in Constantino-
Saint Jean de Maurienne Agreement, 1917, ple, 100, 115, 122, 123, 191-94, 216-17
7, 41, 83, 101 n.2, 251, 256
Supreme Council: accepts Smyrna Commis-
Salih Pasha, 231 sion report, 171; and Batum, 271
Salonika, 40 Swaraj movement, 216-17
Santa Sophia, church of, 191, 199 n.54, Sykes-Picot Agreement, 1916, 6-7, 16, 27-28,
228n.71 3 2 n . l l , 33n.25, 51, 64, 78, 143, 203, 256
San Remo conference. See Conference at San Syria, 7, 144; American policy toward, 66-67;
Re mo and Anglo-French September Agreement,
142-43; Anglo-French tensions over, 64-65,
San Remo Oil Agreement, 304-5, 312n.53
138-39, 328; Arab policy toward, 53, 273;
Scalanuova, 98, 118, 128n.43, 160, 164
British policy toward, 33 n.28, 51, 70;
Schuman, Frederick, 321-22 boundaries of, 142-43, 212, 214, 272-73;
Scialoja, Vittorio, 167 Franco-Arab conflict over, 31, 302, 323;
French claims to, 16, 51-56; French man-
Secret negotiations: proposed Anglo-
date in, 36n.80, 121, 302; military occupa-
tion of, 30, 73-75, 141, 147, 15On.33. See
Self-determination of nations, 8, 9, 27
also Commission of Inquiry: Syria; King-
September Agreement. See Anglo-French Crane Commission
Sevres, Treaty of, 1920, 239, 320-21, 335 n.32; Talbot, Gerald, 43
evaluation of, 321-24, 330-32
Tangier, Spanish: French interest in, 215, 276,
Seymour, Charles, 22, 41 304
Sforza, Carlo, 94-95, 319; cancels Tittoni- Tardieu, Andre, 102 n. 11, 156, 315
Venizelos Agreement, 319-20; critical of
Temperley, Harold, 82 n.47
Lloyd George, 334 n. 17; pro-Turkish sym-
Tewfik Pasha, 316
pathies, 327; supports Nationalist move-
ment, 176n.34, 197 n.6 Thrace, 41, 44, 154-55, 164, 265-66, 325; Bul-
garian claims to, 153-54; Greek claims to,
39-40; Greek occupation of, 265-66, 319;
Smuts, Jan, 26
report of Greek Committee, 85; to be given
Smyrna, 25, 121, 164; American policy, 42, to Greece, 188, 266; Turkish claims to, 109
Tilley, J. A. C , 184 Vansittart, Robert, 93
Times (London), 107, 133, 144, 160, 211, "Vatican" proposal, 191-93
Venizelos, Eleutherios, 39, 88, 329; domestic
Tittoni, Tommaso, 18, 155-56, 159, 162 political pressures on, 61 n.23; and enforce-
Tittoni-Venizelos Agreement, 164-65, 319-20 ment of peace treaty, 295, 317; and Italian-
Greek conflict, 42-43,94, 162-63; and Lloyd
Townshend, Charles, 3
George, 219-20, 292; and Smyrna, 96, 162,
Toynbee, Arnold, 88
170, 171-72, 267, 268; and Thrace, 155-57,
Trebizond, 270, 298 266
Tripartite Pact, 255-57, 292; signing of, 257, Versailles, Treaty of, 330-31
293, 320, 321
Turkey, 25, 83, 102 n. 11, 177n.48, 185, 196,
217, 276, 278, 291; Allied administrative War Office: opposes December, 1919, Con-
authority in, 251-56; Allied fiscal control stantinople agreement, 217-18
in, 121-22, 194-96, 246-51, 291; and armi- Webb, Richard, 161, 181, 233, 236
stice terms, 4; British attitude toward,
Westermann, William, 129 n.63; and
190-91; delegations to Peace Conference of,
Commission of Inquiry: Syria, 80 n. 17; and
109-10, 309, 319; and Greek occupation of
House, 103n.28; and Mezes, 103n.28; and
Smyrna, 97, 98, 160, 166, 266-69; military
Smyrna, 90-91, 102 n. 19, 103 n.28 and n.36
forces in, 258, 264 n.52; and Nationalist
movement, 232, 233, 240 n. 12; opposes Ar- Westminster Gazette, 314
menian state, 132; policy toward Allies of,
White, Henry, 155, 156, 81 n.25
108, 176n.34, 180-81, 197 n.8; possible ex-
White Russian forces: Allies withdraw aid
clusion from Europe of, 14-15, 23, 119, 182,
189-95, 215-19. See also Peace terms: en-
forcement of Wilson, Arnold, 27, 76, 203, 211
Turkish Nationalists. See Nationalist move- Wilson, Henry, 105n.58 and n.68, 113,
Wilson, Woodrow, 23, 284, 322, 323, 327; and
Turkish Petroleum Company, 206, 207, 208,
American Near East mandates, 15, 22, 49,
62n.39, 70, 111, 122, 125, 299, 327-28; and
Turkish press, 243-44, 315
Anatolian partition, 111, 112, 124-26,
128n.30; anti-Italian attitude, 36n.70, 96,
United States, 63 n.61, 148 n.7, 244, 263 n.27, 101, 106n.76, 112, 125, 327; and Commis-
294; and Conference at San Remo, 306-7; sion of Inquiry: Syria, 66, 80n.l7, 81 n.25;
and Conference of London, 284-85, and Constantinople, 119, 122, 123, 125,284;
289n.64; and Greek claims, 41-42, 86, defines Armenian boundaries, 298-99; and
154-55, 158; failure to ratify Versailles Feisal, 52; and Greek claims in Anatolia,
treaty, 174, 178n.67, 185, 328; loss of influ- 92-93, 103 n.31 and n.39, 106 n.76, 114; and
ence on Near East negotiations, 186, 223, Greek occupation of Smyrna, 95, 96, 100,
266, 284-85, 306-7; Near East aims of, 105 n.57, 125; and League of Nations, 29,
20-22; and negotiation of Turkish treaty, 126; and mandates system, 29, 115; and
327-29, 336n.50; and oil rights, 210, 306; Orlando, 25, 36n.70; statement of peace
public opinion in, 22; and secret wartime aims, 8, 9, 10; on Turkish claims, 110;
agreements, 21, 84. See also Armenia: proposes unofficial French "mandate" in
American mandate in; Mandates system: Anatolia, 119, 123, 125-26, 129 n.63; and
American participation in; Wilson, Wood- Sonnino, 25, 36n.70; and Thrace, 155, 157,
row 188; and treaty terms, 284; and Weizmann,
Weizmann, Chaim, 57-58, 63n.61 and n.62
United States Commissioners Plenipotentiary,
United States Department of State, 133
Yale, William, 67, 151 n.42. See also Yale plan
United States Senate: and American man-
Yale plan, 143-46, 151 n.48, 152n.49
dates, 125, 328
Yugoslavia, 43, 118, 120, 312n.59
Van, 270, 298
Van, Lake, 298 Zionists, 7, 56-59, 324
(Continued from front flap)
European rivalries, imperialist ambitions, and
national prejudices, compounded by private
antagonisms and personal conflicts among
the negotiants, were permitted to shape finally
and permanently the substance of the treaty
that was signed. In the end, Dr. Helmreich
demonstrates conclusively, the Treaty of Sevres
suffered the tragic misfortune of being a
nineteenth-century solution to a nineteenth-
century problem that occurred—fatefully, it
turns out —in the novel and misunderstood
environment of the twentieth.
Paul C. Helmreich is associate professor of
history at Wheaton College in Norton,
Designed by Harold M. Stevens