Sunday, August 30, 2015

The 1920 San Remo Minutes APPENDIX A and Treaty of Sevres

The San Remo Minutes APPENDIX A  and Treaty of Sevres
Signed 30 October 1918
I.—Opening of Dardanelles and Bosphorus and secure access to the Black Sea. Allied
occupation of Dardanelles, and Bosphorus forts.
II.—Positions of all minefields, torpedo-tubes, and other obstructions in Turkish waters to
be indicated, and assistance given to sweep or remove them as may be required.
III.—All available information as to mines in the Black Sea to be communicated.
IV.—All Allied prisoners of war and Armenian interned persons and prisoners to be collected
in Constantinople and handed over unconditionally to the Allies.
V.—Immediate demobilization of the Turkish army, except for such troops as are required
for the surveillance of the frontiers and for the maintenance of internal order. (Number of
effectives and their disposition to be determined later by the Allies after consultation with
the Turkish Government.)
VI.—Surrender of all war vessels in Turkish waters or in waters occupied by Turkey; these
ships to be interned at such Turkish port or ports as may be directed, except such small
vessels as are required for police or similar purposes in Turkish territorial waters.
VII.—The Allies to have the right to occupy any strategic points in the event of any situation
arising which threatens the security of the Allies.
VIII.—Free use by the Allied ships of all ports and anchorages now in Turkish occupation
and denial of their use to the enemy. Similar conditions to apply to Turkish mercantile shipping
in Turkish waters for purposes of trade and the demobilization of the army.
IX.—Use of all ship-repair facilities at all Turkish ports and arsenals.
X.—Allied occupation of the Taurus tunnel system.
XI.—Immediate withdrawal of the Turkish troops from Northwest Persia to behind the
pre-war frontier has already been ordered and will be carried out. Part of Trans-Caucasia
has already been ordered to be evacuated by Turkish troops; the remainder is to be evacuated
if required by the Allies after they have studied the situation there.
XII.—Wireless telegraphy and cable stations to be controlled by the Allies, Turkish Govern-
ment messages excepted.
XIII.—Prohibition to destroy any naval, military, or commercial material.
XIV.—Facilities to be given for the purchase of coal and oil fuel, and naval material from
Turkish sources after the requirements of the country have been met. None of the above
material to be exported.
XV.—Allied Control Officers to be placed on all railways, including such portions of the
Trans-Caucasian Railways as are now under Turkish control, which must be placed at the
free and complete disposal of the Allied authorities, due consideration being given to the
* Temperley, Peace Conference, 1: 495-97.
needs of the population. This clause to include Allied occupation of Batoum. Turkey will
raise no objection to the occupation of Baku by the Allies.
XVI.—Surrender of all garrisons in Hedjaz, Assir, Yemen, Syria, and Mesopotamia to the
nearest Allied Commander; and the withdrawal of troops from Cilicia, except those necessary
to maintain order, as will be determined under Clause V.
XVII.—Surrender of all Turkish officers in Tripolitania and Cyrenaica to the nearest Italian
garrison. Turkey guarantees to stop supplies and communication with these officers if they
do not obey the order to surrender.
XVIII.—Surrender of all ports occupied in Tripolitania and Cyrenaica, including Misurata,
to the nearest Allied garrison.
XIX.—All Germans and Austrians, naval, military, and civilian, to be evacuated within
one month from the Turkish dominions: those in remote districts to be evacuated as soon
after as may be possible.
XX.—The compliance with such orders as may be conveyed for the disposal of the equipment,
arms, and ammunition, including transport, of that portion of the Turkish Army which is
demobilized under Clause V.
XXI.—An Allied representative to be attached to the Turkish Ministry of Supplies in order
to safeguard Allied interests. This representative is to be furnished with all information necessary
for this purpose.
XXII.—Turkish prisoners to be kept at the disposal of the Allied Powers. The release of
Turkish civilian prisoners over military age to be considered.
XXIII.—Obligation on the part of Turkey to cease all relations with the Central Powers.
XXIV.—In case of disorder in the six Armenian vilayets, the Allies reserve to themselves
the right to occupy any part of them.
XXV.—Hostilities between the Allies and Turkey shall cease from noon, local time, on
Thursday, 31st October, 1918.
Signed in duplicate on board His Britannic Majesty's Ship Agamemnon, at Port Mudros,
Lemnos, the 30th October, 1918.
Letter from Sir Edward Grey to M. Cambon
FOREIGN OFFICE, May 16, 1916
Your Excellency,
I have the honour to acknowledge the receipt of your Excellency's note of the 9th instant,
stating that the French Government accept the limits of a future Arab State, or Confederation
of States, and of those parts of Syria where French interests predominate, together with certain
conditions attached thereto, such as they result from recent discussions in London and Petrograd
on the subject.
I have the honour to inform your Excellency in reply that the acceptance of the whole
project, as it now stands, will involve the abdication of considerable British interests, but,
since His Majesty's Government recognise the advantage to the general cause of the Allies
entailed in producing a more favourable internal political situation in Turkey, they are ready
to accept the arrangement now arrived at, provided that the co-operation of the Arabs is
secured, and that the Arabs fulfill the conditions and obtain the towns of Horns, Hama,
Damascus, and Aleppo.
It is accordingly understood between the French and British Governments—
1. That France and Great Britain are prepared to recognise and uphold an independent
Arab State or a Confederation of Arab States in the areas (A) and (B) marked on the annexed
map, under the suzerainty of an Arab chief. That in area (A) France, and in area (B) Great
Britain, shall have priority of right of enterprise and local loans. That in area (A) France,
and in area (B) Great Britain shall alone supply advisers or foreign functionaries at the request
of the Arab State or Confederation of Arab States.
2. That in the blue area France, and in the red area Great Britain, shall be allowed to
establish such direct or indirect administration or control as they desire and as they may
think fit to arrange with the Arab State or Confederation of Arab States.
3. That in the brown area there shall be established an international administration, the
form of which is to be decided upon after consultation with Russia, and subsequently in
consultation with the other Allies, and the representatives of the Shereef of Mecca.
4. That Great Britain be accorded (1) the ports of Haifa and Acre, (2) guarantee of a
given supply of water from the Tigris and Euphrates in area (A) for area (B). His Majesty's
Government, on their part, undertake that they will at no time enter into negotiations for
the cession of Cyprus to any third Power without the previous consent of the French Govern-
* Br. Doc, 4: 245-47.
5. That Alexandretta shall be a free port as regards the trade of the British Empire, and
that there shall be no discrimination in port charges or facilities as regards British shipping
and British goods; that there shall be freedom of transit for British goods through Alexandretta
and by railway through the blue area, whether those goods are intended for or originate
in the red area, or (B) area, or area (A); and there shall be no discrimination, direct or
indirect, against British goods on any railway or against British goods or ships at any port
serving the areas mentioned.
That Haifa shall be a free port as regards the trade of France, her dominions and protec-
torates, and there shall be no discrimination in port charges or facilities as regards French
shipping and French goods. There shall be freedom of transit for French goods through
Haifa and by the British railway through the brown area, whether those goods are intended
for or originate in the blue area, area (A), or area (B), and there shall be no discrimination,
direct or indirect, against French goods on any railway, or against French goods or ships
at any port serving the areas mentioned.
6. That in area (A) the Bagdad Railway shall not be extended southwards beyond Mosul,
and in area (B) northwards beyond Samarra, until a railway connecting Bagdad with Aleppo
via the Euphrates Valley has been completed, and then only with the concurrence of the
two Governments.
7. That Great Britain has the right to build, administer, and be sole owner of a railway
connecting Haifa with area (B), and shall have a perpetual right to transport troops along
such a line at all times.
It is to be understood by both Governments that this railway is to facilitate the connexion
of Bagdad with Haifa by rail, and it is further understood that, if the engineering difficulties
and expense entailed by keeping this connecting line in the brown area only make the project
unfeasible, that the French Government shall be prepared to consider that the line in question
may also traverse the polygon Banias-Keis Marib-Salkhad Tell Otsda-Mesmie before reaching
area (B).
8. For a period of twenty years the existing Turkish customs tariff shall remain in force
throughout the whole of the blue and red areas, as well as in areas (A) and (B), and no
increase in the rates of duty or conversion from ad valorem to specific rates shall be made
except by agreement between the two powers.
There shall be no interior customs barriers between any of the above-mentioned areas.
The customs duties leviable on goods destined for the interior shall be collected at the port
of entry and handed over to the administration of the area of designation.
9. It shall be agreed that the French Government will at no time enter into any negotiations
for the cession of their rights and will not cede such rights in the blue area to any third
Power, except the Arab State or Confederation of Arab States, without the previous agreement
of His Majesty's Government, who, on their part, will give a similar undertaking to the French
Government regarding the red area.
10. The British and French Governments, as the protectors of the Arab State, shall agree
that they will not themselves acquire and will not consent to a third Power acquiring territorial
possessions in the Arabian peninsula, nor consent to a third Power installing a naval base
either on the east coast, or on the islands, of the Red Sea. This, however, shall not prevent
such adjustment of the Aden frontier as may be necessary in consequence of recent Turkish
11. The negotiations with the Arabs as to the boundaries of the Arab State or Confederation
of Arab States shall be continued through the same channel as heretofore on behalf of the
two Powers.
12. It is agreed that measures to control the importation of arms into the Arab territories
will be considered by the two Governments.
I have further the honour to state that, in order to make the agreement complete, His
Majesty's Government are proposing to the Russian Government to exchange notes analogous
to those exchanged by the latter and your Excellency's Government on the 26th April last.
Copies of these notes will be communicated to our Excellency as soon as exchanged.
I would also venture to remind your Excellency that the conclusion of the present agreement
raises, for practical consideration, the question of the claims of Italy to a share in any partition
or rearrangement of Turkey in Asia, as formulated in article 9 of the agreement of the 26th
April, 1915, between Italy and the Allies.
His Majesty's Government further consider that the Japanese Government should be in-
formed of the arrangements now concluded.
I have, &c.
Documents and Official Sources
Armenia. The Armenian Question Before the Peace Conference: A memorandum presented
officially by the representatives of Armenia to the Peace Conference at Versailles on February
26, 1919. New York, 1919.
L'Armenie et la question Armenienne avant, pendant et depuis la guerre. Paris, 1922. Contains
documents aimed at showing how committed the Allies were to a separate Armenia, and
that Armenia was for a time an existing, functioning state.
Bulgaria. Delegation to the Peace Conference. Western Thrace; Eastern Thrace, n.p., n.d.
Carnegie Endowment for International Peace. The Treaties of Peace, 1919-1923. 2 vols. New
York, 1924. Volume 2 contains the text of the Treaty of Sevres.
Dickenson, G. Lowes. Documents and Statements Relating to Peace Proposals and War Aims,
December, 1916-November, 1918. New York, 1919.
Egypt. Delegation to the Peace Conference. Official Correspondence, November 11, 1918-July
14, 1919. Paris, 1919. The Egyptian White Book. Egypt was never allowed to present its
claims before the Peace Conference.
. Delegation to the Peace Conference. Les Revendications Nationales Egyptiennes. Paris,
Eudin, Xenia J., and Robert C. North. Soviet Russia and the East, 1920-1927—A Documentary
Survey. Stanford, 1957.
France. Haut Commissariat de la republique franqaise en Syrie et au Liban, La Syrie et le
Liban en 1922. Paris, 1922.
. Journal Officiel, Debats parlementaires, Chambre des Deputes, 1918-1925.
. Journal officiel, Debats parlementaires. Senat, April 29, 1920.
Giannini, Amedeo. / Documenti Diplomatica della Pace Orientale. Rome, n.d.
. / Documenti per la Storia della Pace Orientale, 1915-1932. Rome, 1933. Contains
text of Saint Jean de Maurienne and Tittoni-Venizelos Agreements, as well as the five
minor agreements signed along with the main treaty at Sevres in August, 1920.
Great Britain. Admiralty, Intelligence Division, Geographical Section. Handbook of Turkey
in Europe. London, 1920.
. Admiralty, Intelligence Division, Geographical Section. Manual on the Turanians and
Pan-Turanianism. London, 1920.
Cabinet Papers, 1918-1920. Public Record Office. Cab. 21, 23, 24, 25, 27, 28, 29.
A source of inestimable value, basic to this study.
Foreign Office. Confidential Prints, Eastern Affairs, 1919-1920. Public Record Office.
F.O. 406/41-44.
Foreign Office. General Correspondence, 1920. Public Record Office, F.O. 371.
Foreign Office, Historical Section. Handbooks prepared under the direction of the
Historical Section of the Foreign Office. London, 1920. No. 15, "The Eastern Question";
no. 16, "Turkey in Europe"; no. 17, "Albania"; no. 57, "Mohammedan History"; no. 58,
"Turkey in Asia"; no. 59, "Anatolia"; no. 60, "Syria and Palestine"; no. 61, "Arabia";
no. 62, "Armenia and Kurdistan"; no. 63, "Mesopotamia"; no. 64, "Islands of the Northern
and Eastern Aegean"; no. 65, "Cyprus"; no. 66, "France and the Levant": no. 76, "Persian
G u l f ; no. 162, "Zionism."
Foreign Office. Peace Conference of 1919-1920: British Delegation Correspondence.
Public Record Office. F.O. 608. A mammoth collection, of prime importance for this study.
Includes all dispatches from the Near East that were forwarded from the Foreign Office
to the Peace Delegation.
Foreign Office. Peace Conference of 1919-1920. Public Record Office, F.O. 373,
Handbooks, 1918-1919; F.O. 374, Acts of the Conferences.
. Parliamentary Debates, Commons, 5th series. London, 1909-.
Parliamentary Debates, House of Lords, 5th series. London, 1909-.
Parliamentary Papers, 1920, "Agreement between France, Russia, Great Britain and
Italy. Signed at London, April 26, 1915." Command 671. London, 1920.
Parliamentary Papers, 1920. "Correspondence relating to the Adriatic Question."
Command 586. London, 1920.
. Parliamentary Papers, 1920. "Memorandum of Agreement (San Remo, April 24, 1920)
between M. Phillippe Berthelot and Prof. Sir John Cadman." Command 675. London,
. Parliamentary Papers, 1920. "Treaty between the principle Allies and associated powers
and Greece. Signed at Sevres, August 10, 1920." Command 960. London, 1920.
Parliamentary Papers, 1920. "Treaty of Peace with Turkey, Signed at Sevres, August
10, 1920." Command 964. London, 1920.
. Parliamentary Papers, 1920. "Tripartite agreement between the British Empire, France
and Italy respecting Anatolia. Signed at Sevres, August 10, 1920." Command 963. London,
. Parliamentary Papers, 1921. "Correspondence between H. M. Government and the
United States Respecting^Economic_Righ_ts in the Mandated Territories." Command 1226.
London, 1921.
Parliamentary Papers, 1921. "Draft Mandates for Mesopotamia and Palestine as
Submitted for the Approval of the League of Nations." Command 1176. London, 1921.
Parliamentary Papers, 1921. "Franco-British Convention, December 23, 1920, on
Certain Points Connected with the Mandates for Syria and the Lebanon, Palestine and
Mesopotamia." Command 1195. London, 1921.
Parliamentary Papers, 1921. "Treaty between the Allied Powers and Greece relative
to Thrace. Signed at Sevres, August 10, 1920." Command 1390. London, 1921.
Parliamentary Papers, 1939. "Correspondence between Sir Henry McMahon, His
Majesty's High Commissioner at Cairo, and the Sherif Hussein of Mecca, July, 1915-March,
1916." Command 5957. London, 1939.
Parliamentary Papers, 1939. "Report of a Committee set up to consider certain
correspondence which took place in the years 1915 and 1916 between Sir Henry McMahon
(His Majesty's High Commissioner in Egypt) and the Sherif of Mecca in 1915 and 1916."
Command 5974. London, 1939.
. Parliamentary Papers, 1939. "Statements Made on Behalf of His Majesty's Government
During the Year 1918 in Regard to the Future Status of Certain Parts of the Ottoman
Empire." Command, 5964. London, 1939. Contains Hogarth Declaration, Declaration to
the Seven, and the Allenby Pledge.
The Greek White Book. American Hellenic Society, no. 5 and 9. New York, 1919.
Hurewitz, Jacob C. Diplomacy in the Near and Middle East, A Documentary Record,
1535-1956. 2 vols. New York/l956.
India. Superintendent of Government Printing. India in 1919. Calcutta, 1920.
. Superintendent of Government Printing. India in 1920. Calcutta, 1921.
Superintendent of Government Printing. India in 1921-22. Calcutta, 1922.
Israel, Fred L., ed. Major Peace Treaties of Modern History, 1648-1967. 4 vols. New
York, 1967. Volume 3 contains the Treaty of Sevres.
Italy. Ministere degli Affari Esteri. / documenti diplomatici italiani, Sesta serie. Rome, 1956.
Unfortunately only one volume in this series of this highly valuable collection has as yet
been published. It covers December, 1918-January, 1919.
Kemal, Mustapha Pasha. A Speech Delivered by Ghazi Mustapha Kemal, President of the
Turkish Republic, October, 1927. Leipzig, 1929. A speech that took several days to complete
and constitutes Kemal's account of the Turkish revolution.
^ Die Dokumente zur Rede vom 15 bis 20 Oktober, 1927. Leipzig, n.d. Contains the
text of the documents referred to by Kemal in his marathon speech. Documents are in
"The King-Crane Report on the Near East." Editor and Publisher 55 (December 2, 1922): 1-27.
League of Nations. Official Journal, 1920. Geneva, 1921.
Lloyd George, David. British War A ims; Statement by the Right Honorable David Lloyd George,
January 5, 1918, Authorized Version as Published by the British Government. New York,
Paris Peace Conference. American Commission to Negotiate Peace. Principal Declarations
Respecting Terms of  Peace by President Wilson and the Secretary of State. Paris, 1919.
Conference des preliminaires de paix. Composition et fonctionnement, V avril, 1919.
Paris, 1919.
Fonctionnement de la conference, l octobre, 1919. Paris, 1919.
minutes of various committees. Not useful for the topic under consideration.
La Paix de Versailles. 12 vols. Paris, 1930. Collection of documents, including the
"The Secret Treaty Dividing Turkey." Nation 3 (December, 1920): 697-99. Text of the Tripartite
Pact signed at Sevres, with a good map.
Tittoni, T., and V. Scialoja. "L'ltalia alia Conferenza della Pace, Discorsi et Documenti. Rome,
1921. Speeches of the two before the Chamber of Deputies and the Senate.
Turkey. Delegation to the Peace Conference, Observations Generales presentees par la Delegation
Ottomane a la Conference de la Paix. n.p., n.d. A statement bitterly attacking most of
the provisions of the proposed treaty.
Turquie. Ministere des affaires etrangeres, Le livre rouge. La question de Mossoul de la signature
du traite d'armistice de Moudros (30 Octobre, 1918 au 1 Mars, 1925). Constantinople, 1925.
Contains British-Turk correspondence concerning the initial British occupation of Mosul
and subsequent British dealings with the Kurds.
"The United States and the Armenian Mandate: Message of President Wilson to the Congress,
May 24, 1920," International Conciliation 151 (June, 1920):271-74.
United States Congress, Congressional Record. 65th Cong., 2d sess., 1918. Vol. 56.
United States. Department of State. Records Relating to the Internal Affairs of Turkey,
1910-1929. National Archives, Washington, D.C. Political Affairs, 867.00.
. Department of State. Papers of the American Commission to Negotiate Peace. National
Archives, Washington, D.C. Because of the limited American participation in Near East
negotiations, this collection proved far less rewarding than its British counterpart.
Department of State. Papers Relating to the Foreign Relations of the United State,
1919. 2 vols. Washington. 1934.
Department of State. Papers Relating to the Foreign Relations of the United States,
1920. 3 vols. Washington, 1935-1936.
Department of State. Papers Relating to the Foreign Relations of the United States,
The Lansing Papers, 1914-1920. 2 vols. Washington, 1939-40.
Department of State. Papers Relating to the Foreign Relations of the United States,
The Paris Peace Conference, 1919. 13 vols. Washington, 1942-47. A documentary record
of great value, including the official minutes of the Council of Ten and the Council of
Venizelos, Eleutherios. Greece Before the Peace Congress of 1919: A Memorandum Dealing
with the Rights of Greece, Submitted by Eleutherios Venizelos. American Hellenic Society,
no. 7. New York, 1919.
Woodward, E. L., and R. Butler, eds. Documents on British Foreign Policy, 1919-1939, Series
1. London, 1947-. An indispensable documentary collection, containing much diplomatic
correspondence relative to the Near East, as well as the minutes of the December, 1919,
Anglo-French discussions and the London, San Remo, and Boulogne conferences.
Personal Papers, Memoirs and Diaries
Abdullah, King. Memoirs of King Abdullah of Trans-Jordan. London, 1950.
Adivar, Halide Edib. The Turkish Ordeal. New York, 1928.
Aharonian, Avetis. "From Sardarapat to Sevres and Lausanne; a political diary." Armenian
Review 15 (Fall, 1962)-17 (Spring, 1964). The installments in these issues deal with the
period examined in this study.
"Republic of Armenia: Memorandum of Avetis Aharonian." Nation 108 (April 5,
1919): 526-27.
Ahmed Djemal Pasha. Memoirs of a Turkish Statesman, 1913-1919. New York, 1922.
Armstrong, Harold C. Turkey in Travail. London, 1926. Memoirs.
Baker, Ray S., and William E. Dodd. The Public Papers of Woodrow Wilson. 3 vols. New
York, 1927.
Balfour, Arthur J. Papers. On deposit in the British Museum. London, England.
. Private Papers. On deposit in the Foreign Office archives in the Public Record Office.
F.O. 800/26.
Barrere, Camille. "La Conference de San Remo." Revue des deux Mondes 108 (August
193 8): 510-15.
Beadon, Roger H. Some Memories of the Peace Conference. London, 1933.
Beer, George L. Diary at the Paris Peace Conference, December, 1918-August, 1919. On
deposit in Butler Library. Columbia University. New York, New York.
Bell, Gertrude L. The Letters of Gertrude Bell. Edited by Lady Bell. 2 vols. London, 1927.
Berenger, Henry, Le Petrole et la France. Paris, 1920. Unfortunately, deals almost exclusively
with domestic matters. Admits that the "most instructive" chapter would be one on French
diplomacy regarding petroleum since the armistice, but claims publication at that time would
be premature.
Bertie, Lord Francis. The Diary of Lord Bertie. London, 1924.
Bliss, General Tasker. Papers. On deposit in the Library of Congress. Washington, D.C.
Bonar Law, A. Papers. On deposit in the Beaverbrook Library. London, England.
Bonsai, Stephen. Suitors and Suppliants: The Little Nations at Versailles. New York, 1946.
, Unfinished Business. Garden City, New York, 1944.
Bowman, Humphrey E. Middle East Window. New York, 1942.
Bristol, Admiral Mark. Papers. On deposit in the Library of Congress. Washington, D.C.
Buckler, William L. Papers. On deposit in Sterling Memorial Library, Yale University. New
Haven, Connecticut.
Burgoyne, Elizabeth, ed. Gertrude Bell: From her Personal Papers, 1914-1926. London, 1961.
Callwell, C. E. Field Marshal Sir Henry Wilson, His Life and Diaries, 2 vols. New York,
1927. A valuable contemporary source.
Cambon, Paul, Correspondance, 1870-1924. Edited by Henri Cambon. 3 vols. Paris, 1946.
Extremely valuable collection of letters written by the French ambassador in London.
Catroux, Georges. Deux Missions en Moyen-Orient (1919-1922). Paris, 1958.
Cecil, Viscount Robert. A Great Experiment. New York, 1941. Cecil's autobiography, unfortu-
nately of little use.
Cecil of Chelwood, Viscount E. A. Robert. Papers. On deposit in the British Museum. London,
Charles-Roux, Franqois. Souvenirs diplomatique; une grande ambassade a Rome, 1919-1925.
Paris, 1961.
Churchill, Winston S. The World Crisis: The Aftermath, 1918-1928. New York, 1929. Interesting
comments by one of the leaders of British opposition to both Greek claims and the Turkish
Clemenceau, Georges. Discours de paix, publies par la Societe des amis de Clemenceau. Paris,
. Grandeur and Misery of Victory, New York, 1930.
Crespi, Silvio, Alia Defesa d'ltalia in Guerra e a Versailles, Diario, 1917-1919. Milan, 1937.
Crowe, Sir Eyre. Private Papers. On deposit in the Foreign Archives in the Public Record
Office. F.O. 800/243. Of little value for the purposes of this work.
Curzon of Kedleston, Lord George Nathaniel. Correspondence and Papers. On deposit in
the Commonwealth Relations Office, India Office Library. Vols. 594-97 contain the War
Cabinet Papers, 1919. Curzon's personal papers for the peace conference period were not
available to the public in 1967.
. Private Papers. On deposit in the Foreign Office Archives of the Public Record Office.
F.O. 800/151. Of minimal value for the purposes of this study.
D'Abernon, Edgar V. The Diary of an Ambassador, Viscount D'Abernon. 3 vols. New York,
Day, Clive. Papers. On deposit in Sterling Memorial Library, Yale University. New Haven,
Edib, Halide. See Adivar, Halidd Edib.
Edmonds, C. John. Kurds, Turks and Arabs. London, 1957.
Garnett, David. The Letters of T. E. Lawrence. New York, 1939.
Gates, Caleb F. Not to me Only. Princeton, N.J., 1940.
Georges-Gaulis, Berthe. La Nouvelle Turquie. Paris, 1924.
Giolitti, Giovanni. Memoirs of My Life. London, 1923.
Grew, Joseph C. Papers. On deposit in Houghton Library, Harvard University. Cambridge,
Massachusetts. Of little value.
. Turbulent Era: A Diplomatic Record of Forty Years. 2 vols. New York, 1952.
Hancock, W. K., and Jean Van Der Poel, eds. Selections from the Smuts Papers. 4 vols.
Cambridge, 1966. Volume 4 covers November, 1918-August, 1919.
Hankey, Lord Maurice P. The Supreme Control at the Paris Peace Conference 1919: A Commen-
tary. London, 1963. Unfortunately tends heavily toward being just a synopsis of the official
minutes of the Conference.
Harbord, James G. Leaves from a War Diary. New York, 1925. Ends with the armistice.
Hardinge of Penhurst, Lord Charles H. Old Diplomacy: The Reminiscences of Lord Hardinge
of Pen hurst Covering the Years 1880-1924. London, 1947.
Hohler, Sir Thomas B. Diplomatic Petrel. London, 1942. Ends with Armistice Day, 1918,
and his appointment to Constantinople.
Hoover, Herbert C. Memoirs, 3 vols. New York, 1951-52. Contains a brief discussion of
Hoover's work in the Armenian relief program.
The Ordeal of Woodrow Wilson. New York, 1958. Primarily a memoir of Hoover's
own connection with Wilson during and after the Peace Conference.
House, Edward M. Papers. On deposit in Sterling Memorial Library. Yale University. New
Haven, Connecticut. A well-indexed, large collection of material, including much on the
first six months of the Peace Conference. In addition to official documents the collection
includes House's diary and personal correspondence.
Jones, Thomas, Whitehall Diary. Edited by Keith Middlemas. New York, 1969-. Vol. 1,
Lansing, Robert. Diary on deposit in Library of Congress. Washington, D.C. of little value
in terms of this study.
. The Peace Negotiations: A Personal Narrative. Boston, 1921.
Lawrence, Thomas E. The Home Letters of T. E. Lawrence and His Brothers. Oxford, 1954.
. Revolt in the Desert. London, 1927.
. Seven Pillars of Wisdom. London, 1935.
T. E. Lawrence to his Biographer, Liddell-Hart. New York, 1938.
. T. E. Lawrence to his Biographer, Robert Graves. New York, 1938.
Lloyd George, David. Papers. On deposit in the Beaverbrook Library. London, England.
A large, magnificently indexed collection including both official documents and personal
. The Truth A bout the Peace Treaties. 2 vols., (pages numbered consecutively). London,
1938. A distinct apologia, yet quite valuable.
Luke, Sir Harry.. War Memoirs. Cities and Men: An Autobiography. 2 6 vols. Boston, 1933-37.  vols. London, 1953.
Malcolm, Sir Ian. Lord Balfour, A Memory. London, 1930.
Mantoux, Paul. Les Deliberations du Conseil des Quatre (24 mars - 28 juin, 1919). 2 vols.
Paris, 1955. Contains records of a number of meetings of the Council of Four at which
no official minutes were kept. Based on notes taken by the chief interpreter, the actual
words of the participants are recorded, and much of value that fails to appear in the official
minutes, especially differences of opinion, can be found.
Marescotti, Count Luigi A. Guerra diplomatica; ricordi eframmenti di diario (1914-1919). Milan,
1936. Contains records of Council of Four meetings of April 17-24 and May 7-June 2.
Nouvi ricordi e frammenti di diario. Milan, 1938. Contains minutes of Council of
Four meetings in June, 1919. Also has memoranda and documents on the proceedings
leading to the Saint Jean de Maurienne Agreement.
Meinertzhagen, Richard. Middle East Diary, 1917-1956. London, 1959.
Mezes, Sidney. Papers. On deposit in Butler Library, Columbia University, New York, New
York. Deals entirely with the Inquiry period, 1917-18.
Miller, David H. My Diary at the Conference of Paris, with Documents. 21 vols. New York,
1928. An extensive and highly valuable collection of miscellaneous documents relating to
the. work of the Peace Conference.
Mordacq, Jean J., Le Ministere Clemenceau, 4 vols. Paris, 1930-31.
Nicolson, Harold, Peacemaking, 1919. Boston, 1933. An important diary written by a member
of the Greek Committee and an advisor to the Big Four on the question of the division
of European and Anatolian Turkey.
Nitti, Francesco. The Wreck of Europe. Indianapolis, 1922.
Orlando, Vittorio E. Memorie, 1915-1919. Edited by R. Mosca. Milan, 1960. Contains general
reminiscences and comments on the Peace Conference.
Patrick, Mary M. Under Five Sultans. New York, 1929.
Pech, Edgar. Les Allies et Turquie. Paris, 1925. Day-by-day diary of a Frenchman in Constan-
tinople. Objective treatment.
Philby, Harry St. J. B. Arabian Days. London, 1948.
Pichon, Jean. Sur la Route des Indes. Paris, 1932. Good discussion of some of the Armenian
Poincare, Raymond. Au Service de la France: neuf annees de souvenirs. 10 vols. Paris, 1926.
Volume 10 has a brief discussion concerning Anglo-French friction over the Turkish armi-
stice, and early Greek ambitions to land at Smyrna.
Polk, Frank L. Papers. On deposit in Sterling Memorial Library, Yale University. New Haven,
Connecticut. Particularly valuable for material relevant to the negotiations concerning Thrace
in the summer of 1919.
Rawlinson, Sir Alfred. Adventures in the Near East, 1918-1922. New York, 1924. Sheds light
on British attempts to sound out Kemal in the fall of 1919.
Riddell, Baron George A. Lord RiddeU's Intimate Diary of the Peace Conference and After,
1918-1923. New York, 1934.
Rodd, Sir James Rennell. Social and Diplomatic Memories, 1884-1919. London, 1922-25.
Ryan, Sir Andrew. The Last of the Dragomans. London, 1951. Memoirs of a member of
the British High Commission in Constantinople.
Samuel, Viscount Herbert L. Grooves of change, a book of Memoirs by the Rt. Hon. Viscount
Samuel. New York, 1946.
Seymour, Charles. The Intimate Papers of Colonel House. 4 vols. Boston, 1926. A valuable
collection based upon Seymour's work in the House Papers currently on deposit at Yale
. Letters from the Paris Peace Conference. Edited by H. B. Whiteman, Jr. New Haven,
Conn., 1965.
Connecticut. Papers. On deposit in Sterling Memorial Library, Yale University. New Haven,
Sforza, Count Carlo. Diplomatic Europe Since the Treaty of Versailles. New Haven, Conn.,
. Makers of Modern Europe. Indianapolis, 1930. Was high commissioner in Constan-
tinople. Admits contacts with and sympathy for Kemalist forces from the time the resistance
was organized. A study of leading personalities, full of first person reminiscences.
Shotwell, James T. At the Paris Peace Conference. New York, 1937.
. Autobiography. Indianapolis, 1961. Of little value for the purposes of this study.
Papers. On deposit in Butler Library, Columbia University. New York, New York.
Sonnino, Baron Sidney. Papers relating to World War I in the Archive of Baron Sidney
Sonnino. Ann Arbor, Mich.: University Microfilms, 1969. Reels 17-24, 41-54. A vast and
important collection, primarily of official Italian State telegrams, but including in the last
eight reels a miscellaneous collection of papers, correspondence, and memoranda.
Steed, H. Wickham. Through Thirty Years, 1892-1922, A Personal Narrative, 2 vols. London,
1924. Interesting sidelights provided by a man who at the time of the Peace Conference
was editor of the Times (London).
Storrs, Sir Ronald. Orientations. London, 1937.
Thompson, Charles T. The Peace Conference Day by Day: A Presidential Pilgrimage leading
to the Discovery of Europe. New York, 1920.
Townshend, Sir Charles V. F. My Campaign. New York, 1920.
Vansittart, Lord Robert. The Mist Procession: The Autobiography of Lord Vansittart. London,
Weizmann, Chaim. Trial and Error. 2 vols. Philadelphia, 1949.
Westermann, William L. Personal Diary at the Peace Conference in Paris, December, 1918-July,
1919. On deposit in Butler Library, Columbia University. New York, New York. A member
of the Greek Committee, Westermann bitterly opposed President Wilson's support of Greek
claims in Asia Minor.
Wilson, A. T. Loyalties, Mesopotamia. 2 vols. London, 1930-31. Memoirs of the acting civil
commissioner for Mesopotamia in 1919-20.
. Papers. On deposit in the British Museum. London, England.
Wilson, Woodrow. Papers. Series V-A, Peace Conference, 1919. On deposit in the Library
of Congress. Washington, D.C. Of great general use.
Wiseman, Sir William. Papers. On deposit in Sterling Memorial Library, Yale University.
New Haven, Connecticut.
Yale, William. Papers. On deposit in Sterling Memorial Library, Yale University. New Haven,
Connecticut. Of particular interest is a report written by Yale concerning his attempt to
negotiate a Near East settlement in the early fall of 1919.
Yalmin, Ahmed Emin. Turkey in My Time. Norman, Oklahoma, 1956. Memoirs of a Turkish
Young, Sir Hubert. The Independent Arab. London, 1933.
Adam, George. The Tiger, Georges Clemenceau, 1841-1929. New York, 1930.
Aldington, Richard. Lawrence of Arabia, A Biographical Enquiry. London, 1955. An attempt
to prove that Lawrence was little more than a humbug and a fake.
Armstrong, Harold C. Grey Wolf, Mustafa Kemal: An Intimate Study of a Dictator. London,
Azan, Paul J. Franchet d'Esperey. Paris, 1949.
Baker, Ray S. Woodrow Wilson and World Settlement. 3 vols. Garden City, New York, 1923.
Volume 3 contains a collection of documents.
Beaverbrook, William M. Aitken, Baron. The Decline and Fall of Lloyd George. London,
Benoist-Mechin, Jacques. Le Loup et le leopard, Mustapha Kemal; ou, La Mort d'un empire.
Paris, 1954.
Bruun, Geoffrey. Clemenceau. Cambridge, Mass., 1943. Some information regarding the
presidential election, nothing regarding the Eastern Question.
Butler, James R. M. Lord Lothian, Philip Kerr, 1882-1940. London, 1960.
Collier, Basil. Brasshat: A Biography of Field-Marshal Sir Henry Wilson. London, 1961.
"Un Diplomate." Paul Cambon, Ambassadeur de France, 1843-1924. Paris, 1937.
Dugdale, Blanche. Arthur James Balfour. 2 vols. New York, 1937. Contains many documents,
but few pertaining to the Near East settlement. Of particular interest is Balfour's avowal
that Wilson was told early of the existence and content of the secret treaties.
Edwards, H. Hugh. David Lloyd George, The Man and the Statesman. 2 vols. New York,
Erlanger, Philippe. Clemenceau. Paris, 1968.
Eubank, Keith. Paul Cambon: Master Diplomatist. Norman, Oklahoma, 1960.
Garrety, John A. Henry Cabot Lodge: A Biography. New York, 1953.
Gibbons, Herbert A. Venizelos. Boston, 1920.
Graves, Robert. Lawrence and the Arabian Adventure. New York, 1928.
Huddleston, Sisley. Poincare: A Biographical Portrait. London, 1924.
Jackson, John H. Clemenceau and the Third Republic. New York, 1948.
Jones, Thomas. Lloyd George. Cambridge, Mass., 1951.
Kinross, Lord. Ataturk: A Biography of Mustafa Kemal, Father of Modern Turkey. New York,
Lansing, Robert. Diary on deposit in Library of Congress. Washington, D.C. of little value
character studies of selected individuals with whom the author was in close contact. Venizelos
is included among the "others."
Leslie, Shane. Mark Sykes, His Life and Letters. London, 1923.
Liddell-Hart, Basil H. T E. Lawrence, In Arabia and After. London, 1943.
Lord, John. Duty, Honor, Empire: The Life and Times of Colonel Richard Meinertzhagen.
New York, 1970.
Martet, Jean. Georges Clemenceau. New York, 1930.
Mikusch, Dagobert von. Mustapha Kemal: Between Europe and Asia. New York, 1931.
Monnerville, Gaston. Clemenceau. Paris, 1968.
Mosley, Leonard. The Glorious Fault: The Life of Lord Curzon. New York, 1960.
Mousa, Suleiman. T. E. Lawrence; an Arab View. London, 1966.
Nevins, Allan. Henry White: Thirty Years of American Diplomacy. New York, 1930. Contains
many excerpts from White's correspondence.
Nicolson, Harold. Curzon: The Last Phase, 1919-1925. London, 1934. Sympathetic to the
Foreign Office and to policies it tried to follow.
Orga, Irfan. Phoenix Ascendant: The Rise of Modern Turkey. London, 1958. A generally
favorable biography of Kemal.
Orga, Irfan, and Margarite Orga. Ataturk. London, 1962.
Owen, Frank. Tempestuous Journey: Lloyd George, His Life and Times, New York, 1955.
Palmer, Frederick. The Life and Letters of Tasker Bliss. New York, 1934.
Ronaldshay, Earl of. See Zetland, Lawrence J.
Spender, Harold. The Prime Minister, David Lloyd George. New York, 1920.
Street, Cecil J. C. Lord Reading. London, 1928. Brief comment on Indian Moslem agitation

concerning Constantinople.
Suarez, Georges. Briand 4 vols. Paris, 1940. Vol. 4, 1916-1918.
Thomson, Malcolm. David Lloyd George, The Official Biography. London, n.d.
Waley, Sir David. Edwin Montagu, A Memoir and An Account of His Visits to India. New
York, 1964.
. "Life of the Hon. Edwin Samuel Montagu." 2 vols. Typescript. British Commonwealth
Relations Office, India Office Library. Contains much material not in the published volume.
Wavell, Sir Archibald P. Allenby, A Study in Greatness. 2 vols. London, 1940-44.
Weisgal, Meyer W., and Joel Carmichael, eds. Chaim Weizmann, A Biography by Several
Hands. New York, 1963.
Young, Kenneth. Arthur James Balfour; The Happy Life of the Politician, Prime Minister,
Statesman and Philosopher, 1848-1930. London, 1963.
Zetland, Lawrence J., Earl of Ronaldshay. The Life of Lord Curzon, being the authorized
biography of George Nathaniel, Marquess Curzon of Kedleston, K.G. 3 vols. New York, 1928.
The standard work on Lord Curzon. Volume 3 has extensive material on the Near East
Monographs and General Historical Works
Abbott, George F. Greece and the Allies, 1914-1922. London, 1922. Generally anti-Venizelos.
Abelous, Frederic. L' Evolution de la Turquie dans ses rapports avec les estrangeres Tou-
lousse, 1928.
Adivar, Halide Edib. Turkey Faces West: A Turkish View of Recent Changes and Their Origin.
New Haven, Conn., 1930.
Adkisson, Laura M. Great Britain and the Kemalist Movement for Turkish Independence,
1919-1923. Ann Arbor, Mich.: University Microfilms, 1958. Should be used with caution.
Adler, Selig. The Uncertain Giant, 1921-1941: American Foreign Policy Between the Wars.
New York, 1965.
Albin, Pierre. La Conference de la Paix, Paris-Versailles, janvier-juin 1919; documents contem-
porains. Paris, 1921. Consists of bound index to articles in Le Monde Nouveau Diplomatique
et Economique.
Albrecht-Carrie, Rene. Italy at the Paris Peace Conference. New York, 1938.
Ancel, J. Manuel Historique de la Question d'Orient, 1792-1923. Paris, 1923.
Anderson, Matthew S. The Eastern Question, 1774-1923. New York, 1966. The best general
Antonius, George. The Arab Awakening: The Story of the Arab National Movement. New
York, 1939. Subsequent scholarship indicates it should be used with caution. Still a useful
Atamian, Sarkis. The Armenian Community. New York, 1955.
Bailey, Thomas A. Woodrow Wilson and the Lost Peace. New York, 1944.
Baker, Ray S. What Wilson Did at Paris. New York, 1919.
Bardoux, Jacques. De Paris a Spa. Paris, 1921. Has an excellent chapter dealing with French
and British press and public reaction to the publication of the Turkish peace treaty in
May, 1920.
Lloyd George et la France. Paris, 1923. Anti-Lloyd George, but also critical of French
lackadaisical attitudes.
Barton, James L. Near East Relief, 1915-1930. New York, 1943.
Bass, John F. The Peace Tangle. New York, 1920.
Bassett, John S. The League of Nations, A Chapter in World Politics. New York, 1928.
Beer, George L. African Questions at the Paris Peace Conference. New York, 1923.
Beloff, Max. Imperial Sunset. New York, 1970. Vol. 1, Britain's Liberal Empire, 1897-1921.
Berkes, Niyazi. The Development of Secularism in Turkey. Montreal, 1964.
Birdsall, Paul. Versailles, Twenty Years After. New York, 1941.
Bishop, Donald G. The Administration of British Foreign Relations. Syracuse, N.Y., 1961.
Bississo, Saadi. La Politique Anglo-Sioniste en Palestine. Paris, 1937.
Black, Cyril E., and Ernst C. Helmreich. Twentieth Century Europe. 2d ed. rev. New York,
Blaisdell, Donald C. European Financial Control in the Ottoman Empire. New York, 1929.
Good survey of the history of the Ottoman Debt.
Bonnefous, Edouard, Historie Politique de la Troisieme Republique. 2d ed. 7 vols. Paris, 1968.
Vol. 3, L'Apres-Guerre, 1919-1924.
Bourgeois, Emile. Manuel historique de politique etrangere. 4 vols. Paris, 1893-1926. Volume
4 pertains to the period under consideration.
Bremond, Edouard. La Cilicie en 1919-1920. Paris, 1921.
. Le Hedjaz dans la Guerre Mondiale. Paris, 1931.
Brown, Carrol, and Theodore Ion. Persecution of the Greeks in Turkey Since the Beginning
of the European War. American Hellenic Society, no. 3, New York, 1918.
Bruneau, Andre. La France au Levant. Paris, 1932. Has text of Gouraud ultimatum to Feisal
in July, 1920.
Buell, Raymond L. Contemporary French Politics. New York, 1920.
Bujac, Colonel Emile. Les Campagnes de VArmee Hellenique, 1918-1922. Paris, 1930.
Bullard, Sir Reader. Britain and the Middle East from Earliest Times to 1950. London, 1951.
Cassavetes, Nicholas J. The Question of Northern Epirus at the Peace Conference. New York,
1919. Pro-Greek propaganda.
Chastenet, Jacques. Cent ans de Republique. 9 vols. Paris, 1970. Vol. 5, Les annees d'illusions,
Chirol, Sir Valentine. The Occident and the Orient. Chicago, 1924.
Cohn, Josef. Englund und Palastina. Berlin, 1931.
Coke, Richard. The Arab's Place in the Sun. London, 1929.
Costopoulo, Stavro. L Empire de VOrient. Paris, 1925.
Cumming, Henry H. Franco-British Rivalry in the Post War Near East. New York, 1938.
Davenport, E. H., and S. R. Cooke. The Oil Trusts and Anglo-American Relations. London,
1923. Good discussion of the organization of the British petroleum executive.
Davison, Roderic, "Turkish Diplomacy from Mudros to Lausanne," In The Diplomats,
1919-1939, edited by Gordon A. Craig and Felix Gilbert. Princeton, N.J., 1953.
Delaisi, Francis. Oil, Its Influence on Politics. London, 1922.
De la Tramerye, Pierre E. The World Struggle for Oil. New York, 1924.
DeNovo, John A. American Interests and Policies in the Middle East, 1900-1939. Minneapolis,
Minn., 1963. Based on extensive research in documentary and manuscript collections as
well as existing secondary sources. An excellent general survey.
Dillon, Emile J. The Inside Story of the Peace Conference. New York, 1920.
Driault, Edouard. La Grand Idee, la Renaissance de VHellenisme. Paris, 1920.
. La Question d'Orient depuis ses origins jusqu'a la paix de Sevres. Paris, 1926.
Driault, Edouard, and Michel Lheretier. Histoire diplomatique de la Grece de 1821 a nos jours.
5 vols. Paris, 1926. Vol 5, La Grece et la grande guerre de la revolution Turque au traite
de Lausanne, 1908-1923. Superceded by documentary collections. Has a good deal on the
deliberations of the Committee on Greek Affairs.
Dukagjin, Basrf Bey, of. Le Monde Oriental et I'Avenir de la Paix. Paris, 1920.
Earle, Edward M. Turkey, the Great Powers and the Bagdad Railway. New York, 1923.
Edib, Halide. See Adivar, Halide Edib.
ESCO Foundation, Palestine, A Study of Jewish, Arab and British Policies. 2 vols. New Haven,
Conn., 1947.
Evans, Laurence. United States Policy and the Partition of Turkey, 1914-1924. Baltimore, Md.,
Fabre-Luce, Alfred. La Crise des Alliances. Paris, 1922. A diatribe against Britain and the
weakness of French Policy.
Faulkner, Harold U. From Versailles to the New Deal. New Haven, Conn., 1950.
Ferriman, Z. Duckett. Greece and Tomorrow. American Hellenic Society, no. 2. New York,
Fisher, Sidney N. The Military in the Middle East. Columbus, Ohio, 1963.
Fitzsimons, M. A. Empire by Treaty: Britain and the Middle East in the Twentieth Century.
Notre Dame, Ind., 1964.
Frangulis, Antoine F. La Grece et la Crise Mondiale. 2 vols. Paris, 1926. Excellent, though
pro-Greek coverage of the question of Greek claims. Anti-Venizelos. Many documents.
Frischwasser-Ra'anan, Heinz F. The Frontiers of a Nation, London, 1955. Good study of
the forces and diplomacy leading to the formation of the Palestine mandate.
Fuad, Ali. La Question des detroits. Paris, 1928.
Gaillard, Gaston. The Turks and Europe. London, 1921. Concerned with the negotiation of
the Treaty of Sevres. Pro-Turkish, anti-British, now outdated by publication of documents.
Chief present value is in discussion of public opinion.
Gelfand, Lawrence E. The Inquiry: American Preparation for Peace 1917-1919. New Haven,
Conn., 1963. By far the most thorough and systematic coverage of the Inquiry yet undertaken.
Georges-Gaulis, Berthe. Angora, Constantinople, Londres: Mustapha Kemal et la politique
anglaise en Orient. Paris, 1922.
. La Question Turque. Paris, 1921.
Giannini, Amedeo. L'Ultima fase della questione Orientale, 1913-1932. Rome, 1933. Conven-
tional. Has map showing division of spheres as formulated in the Tripartite Pact.
Gidney, James B. A Mandate for Armenia Kent, Ohio, 1967.
Gontaut-Biron, Roger de. Comment la France s'est installee en Syrie (1918-1919). Paris, 1922.
Anti-British, but criticizes French government for lack of concrete plans for the Near East.
Gives a good deal of press reaction. Detailed discussion of December, 1919, discussions
between Kemal and Picot.
. D'Angora a Lausanne, les etapes d'une decheance. Paris, 1924.
. La France et la question de Moussoul. Paris, 1923.
Gordon, JLeland J. American Relations with Turkey, 1830-1930; an economic interpretation.
Philadelphia, 1932.
Gottlieb, Wolfram W. Studies in Secret Diplomacy during the First World War. London, 1957.
Good account of the negotiations of the early secret agreements between France, Britain,
and Russia concerning the planned partition of Turkey.
Graves, Philip. Briton and Turk. London, 1941.
Grosbois, Jacques. La Turquie et les detroits. Paris, 1945.
Guinn, Paul. British Strategy and Politics, 1914-1918. Oxford, 1965.
Hacobian, A. P. Armenia and the War. New York, n.d.
Haddad, George. Fifty Years of Modern Syria and Lebanon. New York, 1950.
Hanna, Paul L. British Policy in Palestine. Washington, D.C., 1942.
Haskins, Charles H., and Robert H. Lord. Some Problems of the Peace Conference. Cambridge,
Mass., 1920. Of little value.
Hellas and Unredeemed Hellenism. American Hellenic Society, no. 11. New York, 1920. Contains
articles concerning Greek claims in Asia Minor. See especially George Bourdon, "The Italians
in the Ottoman Empire."
Helmreich, Ernst C. The Diplomacy of the Balkan Wars, 1912-1913. Cambridge, Mass., 1938.
Hocking, William E. The Spirit of World Politics, with Special Studies of the Near East. New
York, 1932.
Hourani, A. H. Syria and Lebanon: A Political Essay. New York, 1946. Maintains that British
and French interests were essentially the same, rather than different, in the area.
House, Edward M., and Charles Seymour, eds., What Really Happened at Paris: The Story
of the Peace Conference, 1918-1919. New York, 1921.
Hovannisian, Richard G. Armenia on the Road to Independence, 1918 Berkeley, Calif., 1969.
Howard, Harry N. The King-Crane Commission. Beirut, 1963.
. The Partition of Turkey, 1913-1923. Norman, Okla., 1931. An admirable and detailed
study; the section dealing with the Treaty of Sevres is based primarily on an examination
of the Miller diary.
Huddleston, Sisley. Peace-making at Paris. London, 1919.
Hudson, Geoffrey F. Turkey, Greece and the Eastern Mediterranean. Oxford, 1939.
Hughes, Serge. The Rise and Fall of Modern Italy. New York, 1967.
Hurewitz, Jacob C. Middle East Dilemmas; the background of United States policy. New York,
Ivanov, Iordan. Les Bulgares devant le Congres de lapaix. Berne, 1919. Has population statistics
purporting to show that Thrace was Bulgarian at the close of the war.
Jackh, Ernst. The Rising Crescent: Turkey Yesterday, Today and Tomorrow. New York, 1944.
Jaschke, Gotthard, and Eric Pritsch. Die Turkei seit dem Weltkriege: Geschichtskalendar,
1918-1928. Berlin, 1929. A useful calendar of events.
Karpat, Kemal. Turkey's Politics: The Transition to a Multi-Party System. Princeton, N.J.,
Kazemzadeh, Firuz. The Struggle for Transcaucasia, 1917-1921. New York, 1951. An important
work, dealing chiefly with events in the area with relatively little emphasis on the workings
of the Peace Conference.
Kedourie, Elie. England and the Middle East: The Destruction of the Ottoman Empire, 1914-1921.
London, 1956. A very valuable study, using a wide variety of sources, including many
Arabic. Concerned generally with events in the Near East and less with the peace negotiations.
Chapter 6 on Syria was particularly valuable for the purpose of this study.
Kirk, George E. A Short History of the Middle East. Washington, D.C., 1949.
Kohn, Hans. A History of Nationalism in the East. New York, 1929. Contains a good analysis
of British interests and connections in the Near East.
. Nationalism and Imperialism in the Hither East. New York, 1932.
La Chesnais, Pierre G. Les peuples de la Transcaucasie pendant la guerre et devant la paix
Paris, 1921.
Larcher, Commandant M., La Guerre Turque dans la Guerre Mondiale. Paris, 1926. Concerned
primarily with Turkey's participation in the war.
Laroche, Jules. Au Quai D'Orsay avec Briand et Poincare, 1913-1926. Paris, 1957.
Lenszowski, George. The Middle East in World Affairs. 2d ed. rev. Ithaca, N.Y., 1956.
Leslie, Shane. Salutation to Five. London, 1951.
Lewis, Bernard. The Emergence of Modern Turkey. New York, 1961.
Lewis, Geoffrey L. Turkey. London, 1955.
The Liberation of the Greek People in Turkey. London, 1919.
Loder, John de Vere. The Truth about Mesopotamia, Palestine and Syria. London, 1923.
Contains a good account of the Mesopotamia uprising of 1920.
Longrigg, Stephen. Iraq, 1900 to 1950. New York, 1956.
. Oil in the Middle East: Its Discovery and Development. New York, 1954.
. Syria and Lebanon Under the French Mandates. New York, 1958. Thorough.
Loris-Melikov, La Revolution russe et la nouvelles republiques transcaucasiennes. Paris, 1920.
Loti, Pierre, La Mort de Notre Chere France en Orient. Paris, 1920. Good example of French
pro-Turk attitude. Hates Greeks and British. Contains a document which is claimed to
be the secret Anglo-Turk agreement of September 12, 1919.
. Les Allies qu'il nous faudrait. Paris, 1919. A collection of pro-Turk essays.
Lugan, Alphonse. Les Problemes internationaux et le Congres de la Paix. Paris, 1919. French
Luke, Harry C. Mosul and its Minorities. London, 1925.
Luquet, J. La Politique des mandates dans le Levant. Paris, 1923.
Lyautey, Pierre. Le Drame oriental et le Role de la France. Paris, 1924.
Lybyer, Albert H. The Question of the Near East. New York, 1921.
Macartney, Maxwell, and Paul Cremona. Italy's Foreign and Colonial Policy, 1914-1937. New
York, 1938.
McCallum, Robert B. Public Opinion and the Last Peace. New York, 1944.
Mandelstam, Andre. La sociite des nations et les puissances devant le probleme armenien. Paris,
1926. Good treatment of the Armenian question.
Manuel, Frank. The Realities of American Palestine Relations. Washington, D.C., 1949. A
thorough study, utilizing all available materials in Washington.
Marlowe, John. A History of Modern Egypt and Anglo-Egyptian Relations, 1800-1956. 2d ed.
Hamden, Conn., 1965.
Marston, Frank S. The Peace Conference of 1919: Organization and Procedure. New York,
Marwick, Arthur, Britain in the Century of Total War. Boston, 1968.
. The Deluge: British Society and the First World War. Boston, 1965.
Massey, William T. Allenby's Final Triumph. London, 1920.
Maurice, Sir Frederick B. The Armistices of 1918. New York. A critical discussion of events
leading to the signing of the armistices. Feels Britain justified, but not judicious, in signing
alone an armistice the terms of which were too hastily formulated.
Mayer, Arno J. Politics and Diplomacy of Peacemaking: Containment and Counterrevolution
at Versailles, 1918-1919. New York, 1967. An excellent study, interrelating national domestic
situations with the work of the Peace Conference.
Mears, Eliot G., ed. Modern Turkey, New York, 1924.
Mileff, Milu. La Bulgarie et les Detroits. Paris, 1927.
Mills, John S., and M. B. Chrussachi. The Question of Thrace—Greeks, Bulgars and Turks.
London, 1919. A series of maps aimed at showing that historically Thrace has always been
Greek rather than Turkish or Bulgarian.
Miller, David H. The Drafting of the Covenant. 2 vols. New York, 1928.
Minorskii, Vladimir F. The Mosul Question. Paris, 1926.
Monroe, Elizabeth. Britain's Moment in the Middle East, 1914-1956. Baltimore, 1963.
Mowat, Charles. Britain Between the Wars, 1918-1940. Chicago, 1955.
Mowat, Robert B. A History of European Diplomacy, 1914-1925. 3 vols. London, 1927.
Mowry, George E. The Urban Nation, 1920-1960. New York, 1965.
Nevakivi, Jukka. Britain, France and the Arab Middle East, 1914-1920. London, 1969.
Noble, George B. Policies and Opinions at Paris, 1919. New York, 1935.
Northedge, Frederick S. The Troubled Giant: Britain Among the Great Powers, 1916-1939.
New York, 1967.
Ostrorog, Leon. The Turkish Problem. London, 1919.
Paillares, Michel. Le Kemalisme devant les Allies. Constantinople, 1922.
Pallis, Alexander A. Greece's Anatolian Venture and After. London, 1937.
Papadopoulos, Alexander. Persecutions of the Greeks in Turkey before the European War.
New York, 1919.
Pernot, Maurice. La Question Turque. Paris, 1923. An objective study, tending to indict both
Britain and France, and stating that no Near East policy would be successful until the
two powers learned to cooperate.
Peters, Richard. The Story of the Turks: From Empire to Democracy. New York, 1959.
Philby, Harry St. J. B. Arabia. New York, 1930.
Phillipson, Coleman, and Noel Buxton. The Question oftheBosphorus and Dardanelles. London,
Pichon, Jean. Le Portage du Proche-Orient. Paris, 1938. Valuable.
Powell, Edward A. The Struggle for Power in Moslem Asia. New York, 1924.
Price, Clair. The Rebirth of Turkey. New York, 1923.
Price, M. Philips. A History of Turkey: From Empire to Republic. London, 1956.
Puaux, Rene\ Constantinople et la Question d'Orient. Paris, 1920. Well-argued pro-Greek
pamphlet. Supports League of Nations, is opposed to British and French imperialism in
the Near East.
La Deportation et le Rapatriement des Grecs en Turquie. Paris, 1919. Pro-Greek.
Redan, Pierre. La Cilicie et le probleme Ottoman. Paris, 1921.
Richard, Henry. La Syrie et la Guerre. Paris, 1916. A vehement advocate of vigorous French
action in a large Syria.
Robinson, Richard D. The First Turkish Republic: A Case Study in National Development.
Cambridge, Mass., 1963.
Royal Institute of International Affairs. British Interests in the Mediterranean and Middle East.
Oxford, 1958.
The Middle East, a Political and Economic Survey. 3d ed. London, 1958.
Sachar, Howard M. The Emergence of the Middle East. New York, 1969.
"The United States and Turkey, 1914-1927-The Origins of Near Eastern Policy."
Ph.D. dissertation, Harvard University, 1953.
Safrastian, Arshak. Kurds and Kurdistan. London, 1948.
Samne, Georges. La Syrie. Paris. 1921. Vehemently pro-French and anti-British.
Schemsi, Kara. Les Turcs et le Panhellenisme. Geneva, 1918. A violent attack on Greece
and Greek claims.
Schlicklin, Jean. Angora; Vaube de la Turquie nouvelle (1919-1922). Paris, 1922.
Schuman, Frederick L. War and Diplomacy in the French Republic: An Inquiry into Political
Motivations and the Control of Foreign Policy. New York, 1931.
Seton-Watson, Christopher. Italy from Liberalism to Fascism, 1870-1925. London, 1967.
Seymour, Charles. Geography, Justice and Politics at the Paris Peace Conference. New York,
Shotwell, James, and Francis Deak. Turkey at the Straits. New York, 1940.
Shwadran, Benjamin. The Middle East, Oil and the Great Powers. 2d ed. New York, 1959.
Smith, Daniel M. The Great Departure: The United States and World War I, 1914-1920. New
York, 1965.
Smith, Elaine D. Turkey: Origins of the Kemalist Movement and the Government of the Grand
National Assembly, (1919-1923). Washington, D.C., 1959. Rambling and poorly organized.
Uses Turkish sources extensively.
Soteriadis, George. An Ethnological Map Illustrating Hellenism in the Balkan Peninsula and
Asia Minor. London, 1918.
Soule, George. Prosperity Decade: From War to Depression, 1917-1929. New York, 1947.
Sousa, Nasim. The Capitulatory Regime of Turkey, its History, Origin and Nature. Baltimore,
Md., 1933. The most thorough study of the capitulations.
Spector, Ivar. The Soviet Union and the Muslim World, 1917-1958. Seattle, Wash., 1959.
Speiser, Ephraim A. The United States and the Near East. Cambridge, Mass., 1947.
Stein, Leonard. The Balfour Declaration. London, 1961. An excellent, scholarly study. The
epilogue deals briefly with the Peace Conference.
Stoddard, Lathrop. The New World of Islam. New York, 1922.
Sykes, Christopher. Two Studies in Virtue. New York, 1953. Includes a study of Balfour,
in relation to the Balfour Declaration.
Temperley, Harold W. V. A History of the Peace Conference. 6 vols. London, 1920-24. An
early and still standard study of the work of the Peace Conference. Volume 6 deals with

Near Eastern affairs.
Thomas, Lewis, and Richard Frye. The United States and Turkey and Iran. Cambridge, Mass.,
Thompson, John M. Russia, Bolshevism and the Versailles Peace. Princeton, N.J., 1966. Signifi-
cant in its lack of any real mention of Bolshevism in relation to the Turkish peace settlement.
Tillman, Seth P. Anglo-American Relations at the Paris Peace Conference of 1919. Princeton,
N.J., 1961.
Topf, Erich. Die Staatenbildungen in den Arabischen Teilen der Turkei seit dem Weltkriege
nach Entstehung, Bedeutung und Lebensfdhigkeit. Hamburg, 1929.
Toynbee, Arnold J., The Western Question in Greece and Turkey. London, 1923. Good
discussion of the Greek campaign in Asia Minor.
Toynbee, Arnold J., and Kenneth P. Kirkwood. Turkey. New York, 1927. A good summary
of the treaty terms and of the reaction in Constantinople to the treaty.
Ullman, Richard. Anglo-Soviet Relations, 1917-1921. 3 vols. Princeton, N.J., 1961-. Vol. 2,
Britain and the Russian Civil War. November, 1918-February, 1920.
Walder, David. The Chanak Affair. London, 1969.
Webster, Donald E. The Turkey of Ataturk: Social Process in the Turkish Reformation.
Philadelphia, 1939. Good study of the Kemalist movement.
Wilson, Trevor. The Downfall of the Liberal Party, 1914-1935. Ithaca, N.Y., 1966.
Wormser, George M. La Republique de Clemenceau. Paris, 1961.
Yale, William. The Near East, A Modern History. Ann Arbor, Mich., 1958.
Yalmin, Ahmed Emin. Turkey in the World War. New Haven, Conn., 1930. Has a chapter
on treatment of minorities during the war.
Young, George. Constantinople. New York, 1926.
Zeine, Zeine N. The Struggle for Arab Independence: Western Diplomacy and the Rise and
Fall of Faisal's Kingdom in Syria. Beirut, 1960. Chronological account. Chapters on the
Peace Conference are often little more than a series of quotations from documents. Seems
to be unaware of the Anglo-French discussions in December, 1919, and mentions only
in passing the Conference of London in February-March, 1920. Makes use of Arab sources.
Ziemke, Kurt. Die Neue Turkei, 1914-1929. Stuttgart, 1930.
Newspapers and Periodicals
"America for expelling the Turk." Literary Digest 64 (March 20, 1920):30-31.
"American Military Mission to Armenia." International Conciliation 151 (June, 1920):275-312.
Report on Armenia by the Harbord Commission.
Andreades, A. "La Grece devant le Congres de la Paix." Revue Politique et Parlementaire
(February, 1919).
Armenian Review. Spring, 1949-Spring, 1952. A series of twelve articles dealing with the
American (Harbord) Military Mission to Armenia. The Spring, 1950 issue contains a record
of an interview between Kemal and Harbord.
"Baffling feature of the latest crisis over Turkey." Current Opinion 68 (April, 1920): 458-63.
"The Balkans and Turkey." Current History 11 (March, 1920): 431-35.
Bennett, E. N. "Our Anatolian policy and the Suppressed Report." English Review 30 (April,
1920): 357-62.
Bliss, W. D. P. "Armenia's Struggle for Independence." Current History 11 (January,
1920): 138-44.
Bourdon, G. ' T h e Italians in the Ottoman Empire." In Hellas and Unredeemed Hellenism.
American Hellenic Society, no. 11. New York, 1920.
"Britain, France, Asia and Oil." Contemporary Review 118 (August, 1920):253-63.
Bryce, Lord James. ' T h e Future of Armenia." Contemporary Review 114 (December,
1918): 604-11.
. "The Settlement of the Eastern Question." Contemporary Review 117 (January,
1920): 1-9.
Burrows, Ronald M. ' T h e Unity of the Greek Race." Contemporary Review 115 (February,
1919): 153-64.
Buxton, H. "Armenia, some recent impressions." Contemporary Review 117 (April,
1920): 497-500.
Buzanski, Peter. "The Interallied Investigation of the Greek Invasion of Smyrna, 1919." The
Historian 25 (May, 1963):325^3.
Caix, Robert de. ' T h e Question of Syria." New Europe 12 (August 28, 1919): 145-49; (Septem-
ber 4, 1919): 169-74.
'The Case of Emir Feisal"Current History 13 (February, 1921):249-55.
Correspondance d'Orient, May, 1919-August, 1920.
"The Crime in Turkey." Nation 111 (July 3, 1920):5.
Current History. March, 1919-June, 1920.
Curry, G. "Woodrow Wilson, Jan Smuts and the Versailles Settlement." American Historical
Review 66 (July, 1961): 968-86.
"Dangerous Complications in Syria—The Massacres at Marash." Current History 12 (April
1920): 108-12.
DeNovo, John A. ' T h e Movement for an Aggressive American Oil Policy Abroad, 1918-1920."
American Historical Review 61 (July, 1956):854-76.
Driault, Edouard. Before Constantinople. Pamphlet, translated from Revue Bleu (December
21-28, 1918-January 4-11, 1919). Vehemently glorifies France and Greece.
Duggan, Stephen. "Syria and Its Tangled Problems" Current History 13 (February,
1921): 238-48.
Dumont-Wilden. "La Question de Constantinople." Revue Politique et Litteraire 58 (March
13, 1920): 151-54.
"Effects of America's Exit from the Near East." Current Opinion 68 (February, 1920): 162-65.
"Europe's Perplexity over the Upheaval in Turkey." Current Opinion 67 (December,
1919): 284-85.
"Explosive Conditions in the Near East." World's Work 40 (May, 1920):20-22.
"The Fate of Constantinople." New Statesman 14 (January 10, 1920):396-97.
France. Ministeres de la Guerre et des Affaires Etrangeres, Bulletin periodique de la presse
Italienne. Paris, December, 1919-August, 1920. A good summary of Italian press attitude.
France, Anatole. "Greece and the Peace." L'Humanite, February 3, 1919.
Frangulis, A. F. "Les Revendications de la Grece." Le Monde Nouveau Diplomatique et
Economique, March 6, 1919, pp. 7-10.
Freer, Mary R. "Did President Wilson Contradict Himself on the Secret Treaties?" Current
History 30 (June, 1929): 4 3 5 ^ 3 .
Fregier, C. "Lettres d'Athenes." Journal des Debats, February 7, 1919, pp. 228-29.
Froidevaux, H. "Au lendemain de la signature du traite de Sevres." L'Asie Francaise, July-
August, 1920, pp. 212-14.
. "L'Announce de la Paix avec Turquie." L'Asie Francaise, January, 1920, pp. 6-10.
. "Les Interets economiques francais dans le Levant et le Traite de paix avec la Tur-
quie." L'Asie Francaise, June, 1920, pp. 172-75.
"Le Projet de Traite avec la Turquie et la France." L'Asie Franqaise, May, 1920,
pp. 142-46.
"The Future of Turkey," Spectator 123 (July 12, 1919):40-41. Claims Lloyd George's offer
of Constantinople to the Turks in January, 1918, was made only as an inducement for
immediate Turkish withdrawal from the war.
Gates, C. F. "Making of the Turkish Republic." Current History 34 (April, 1931): 89-93.
Gautherot, Gustave. "Syria and the Hedjaz: A French View." Current History 12 (April,
1920): 113-16. Reprinted from La France Nouvelle.
Gauvain, A. "Les Allies en Orient." Journal des Debats, June 25, 1920, pp. 1034-35.
Gerard, J. W. "Civilization's Surrender to Barbarism: Proposed Retention of the Turks in
Europe." Independent 101 (March 6, 1920): 345.
Great Britain and the Near East. See The Near East.
Great Britain. General Staff, War Office. Daily Review of the Foreign Press: Allied Press
Supplement. 6 vols. London, November 6, 1918-July 30, 1919. Vols. 5 and 6.
Haim, Sylvia G. "The Arab Awakening: A Source for Historians." Die Welt des Islams, n.s.
Hanotaux, G. "The Question of the Dardanelles." Living Age 304 (January 31, 1920):263-65.
Harbord, J.G. "InvestigatingTurkey and Trans Caucasia." World's Work 40 (May, 1920):35-47.
. "Mustapha Kemal Pasha and his Party." World's Work 40 (June, 1920): 176-93.
Hibben, Paxton. "Arbitrating for Armenia." New Republic 23 (June 16, 1920): 86-90.
. "Asia Minor Muddle." New Republic 23 (August 11, 1920):304-6.
Hovannisian, Richard G. "The Allies and Armenia, 1915-1918." Journal of Contemporary
History 3 (January, 1968): 145-68.
"How Will the Turkish Treaty Work?" Literary Digest 66 (August 28, 1920): 19-20.
Howard, Harry N. "An American Experiment in Peace Making: The King-Crane Commission."
The Moslem World 32 (April, 1942): 122-46.
. "The United States and Turkey: American policy in the Straits Question (1914-1963),"
Balkan Studies 4 (1963): 225-50.
"LTmportance des Interets Franqais dans L'Empire Ottoman," L'Aise Franchise, October,
1919, pp. 179-83.
International Conciliation 751 (June, 1920).
Journal des Debats, September 19, 1919.
Kidwal of Gadia, M. H. "Sultan of Turkey and Constantinople." Saturday Review 127 (June
28, 1919): 632.
Le Temps (Paris). December, 1918-August, 1920.
Loti, Pierre. "The Turks: A Plea for Justice." Living Age 300 (January 11, 1919):65-67.
Louis, W. Roger. "Great Britain and the African Peace Settlement of 1919." American Historical
Review 71 (April, 1966): 875-92.
Lybyer, Albert H. "Turkey under the Armistice." Journal of International Relations 12 (April,
1922): 447-73.
McCallum, D. "The French in Syria, 1919-1924." Journal of the Central Asian Society
(1925): 3-25.
Machray, R. "The Arab Question." Fortnightly Review 113 (February, 1920):249-60.
Mandelstam, A. "The Turkish Spirit." New Europe 15 (April 22, 1920):39-45.
Miguel, Pierre. "Le Journal des Debats et la paix de Versailles." Revue Historique 232
(October-December, 1964): 379-414.
Montgomery, A.E. "The Making of the Treaty of Sevres of 10 August 1920." The Historical
Journal 15 (December, 1972): 775-87.
"Near East Chaos." Nation 111 (September 4, 1920):261-62.
"New Empires for Old." New Statesman 15 (May 15, 1920): 154-55.
"The New National Movement in Turkey." Living Age 304 (January 3, 1920):266-67.
New York Times. January, 1919-August, 1920.
Pech, E. "Les allies et le mandat sur la Turquie." L'Acropole 1:320-28.
Pinon, R. "La Liquidation de l'Empire ottoman." Revue des Deux Mondes, 6th ser. 53 (Sep-
tember 1, 1919): 128-60.
'The Problem of Turkey." Current History 11 (February, 1920):270-75.
"La Question de Syrie et la Paix." L'Asie Francaise, October, 1918-January, 1919, pp. 119-31.
"The Question of Thrace, an Official Greek View." The New Europe 112 (August 21,
1919): 134-37.
Remusat. "Cilicie, 1918-1922." Revue des Science Politiques 54 (July, 1931):348-91.
A Review of the Foreign Press: Political Review. London. A very useful survey, covering the
period from November 14, 1919 to June 11, 1920.
Robinson, L. R. "Turkey looks eastward." Nation 110 (March 13, 1920):327-30.
Saint-Brice. "L'Accord Syrien." Correspondance d'Orient, September 30, 1919, pp. 145-52.
Samnd, Georges. "A propos du traitd turc." Correspondance d'Orient, May 15, 1920, pp. 397-404.
. "L'Effondrement de Faycal." Correspondance d'Orient, August 15-30, 1920, pp. 49-54.
. "French Interests in Syria." Living Age 299 (December 7, 1918):608-13.
. "Les variations de l'Emir Faycal et le nationalisme turc." Correspondance d'Orient,
February 22, 1920, pp. 149-52.
"La Signature du traite turc." Journal des Debats 255 (August 13, 1920).
Simonds, Frank H. "Dividing Turkish Lands." Review of Reviews 61 (June, 1920): 607-12.
. "Greek vs. Turk, a new phase of the Eastern Question." Review of Reviews 62 (August,
1920): 159-68.
Smith, W. G. "Armenian Tragedy." Catholic World 111 (July, 1920):485-92.
"Struggle for Asia." Living Age 304 (March 27, 1920):768-71.
"The Sultan of Turkey and the Caliphate." Contemporary Review 110 (August, 1916): 199-205.
Taillandier, Saint-Rene. "La France et la Syrie, notre oeuvre dans le Levant et son avenir."
Revue des Deux Mondes, 6th ser. 49(February 15, 1919):771-804.
"The Tangled Turkish Question." Current History 12 (May, 1920):323-30.
Tardieu, Andre. "Mossoul et le p6trole." L'lllustration, June 20, 1920. An important statement
defending Clemenceau's policy in relation to Mosul.
. "Reflections sur la Crise Oriental," L'lllustration, December 11, 1920, pp. 452-53.
The Near East (later Great Britain and the Near East), January 9, 1920, p. 39; January 22,
1920, p. 109; February 5, 1920, p. 177; May 27, 1920, p. 752; July 3, 1920, p. 789; August
12, 1920, p. 229.
Times (London). October, 1918-August, 1920.
Toynbee, Arnold J. "Meaning of the Constantinople Decision." New Europe 14 (February
19, 1920): 129-31.
. ' T h e Question of the Caliphate." Contemporary Review 117 (February, 1920): 192-96.
. "Review of the Turkish Problem." New Europe 14 (January 15, 1920): 1-5.
. "San Remo and Turkey." New Europe 15 (May 6, 1920):73-75.
. "Turkey in Suspence." New Europe 15 (April 15, 1920): 16-18.
"Trying to Carve Turkey." Literary Digest 67 (December 4, 1920): 17-18.
'Turkey and her former Dominions, Attacks on the Peace Treaty." Current History 12 (July,
1920): 625-31.
'Turkey at the Coming Peace Conference." Literary Digest 63 (December 13, 1919):21—22.
' T h e Turkish Danger." Saturday Review 129 (June 19, 1920):556.
' T h e Turks to Stay in Europe." Current History 12 (April, 1920): 103-8.
Tyrrell, F. H. "Great Britain, Turkey and Germany." Asiatic Review, n.s. 7 (November 15,
1915): 365-78.
Williams, A. "Armenia, British Pledges and the Near East." Contemporary Review 121 (April,
1922): 418-425.
Williams, T. "America's Duty to Turkey." Independent 99 (August 16, 1919):215-16.
Wilson, Trevor. ' T h e Coupon and the British General Election of 1918." Journal of Modern
History 36 (March, 1964):28-42.
Woods, H. C. "Anatolian War." Fortnightly Review 116 (September, 1921):492-550.
. "The Future of Turkey." Asiatic Review, n.s. 15 (October, 1919):637-40.
. "The Future of Turkey." Contemporary Review 115 (June, 1919):628-36.
. "Sevres, Before and After." Fortnightly Review 118 (October, 1922): 545-60.
. "The Turkish Treaty." Fortnightly Review 114 (July, 1920): 57-66.
Abdullah, 273 Anglo-French Declaration, 1918, 9
Adalia, 18, 94 Anglo-French September Agreement, 141-43,
Adana, 18 151n.40
Adrianople, 85, 266 Anglo-Persian Oil Company, 210, 212, 305
Aegean Fleet, 13 Arabia, 121
Aegean Sea: Bulgarian access to, 153-54, 156, Arab territories: Turkish claims to, 110
157-58, 266 Arabs: claims before Peace Conference,
Aharonian, Avetis, 48, 335 n.39 51-53; and France, 70-72, 139, 213-14; and
Great Britain, 30, 51, 147; independence for,
Ahmed Emin Yalmin, 197 n.6
6, 8-9, 23; negotiations with Zionists, 57-58;
Aidin, town of, 162
uprising, 1916, 6. See also Syria
Aiden, vilayet of, 40; Greek involvement in,
Armenia, 24, 121, 272, 310 n.9; Allied com-
160-61, 267; Italian-Greek conflict in, 162;
mitments to, 46, 49, 269-70, 286 n. 16, 323;
proposed inter-Allied occupation force in,
American mandate in, 13-14, 50—51,92,115,
167-68; Turkish resistance in, 161
120, 122, 125, 132, 136, 270, 299; Bolshevik
Aivali, 169 threat to, 202, 269; boundaries of, 201-2,
Albania, 43, 84, 164 270, 296-99; claims before Peace Confer-
ence of, 46-51, 61 n.34, 297; and France,
Aleppo, 51, 213
50-51, 61n.36, 142; and Great Britain,
Ali Riza Pasha, 231 13-14, 50-51, 131-36; and Harbord Com-
Allenby, Edmund, 54, 81 n.39, 141, 145, 163 mission, 132; and League of Nations, 203,
Allied high commissioners: and Constantino- 270, 293-94, 310 n.6; military assistance to,
ple, 228 n.67, 280; criticize peace terms, 202-3, 223 n.3, 294-96^310^8, 311n.29;
280-81; and Nationalist movement, 235; and Nationalist movement, 270, 296;
propose bloc policy, 280; and Smyrna, 173, Turkish attitude toward, 47, 110
268-69 Armenians, 201-2, 224 n.4, 253
\met, Admiral, 3 Armistice of Mudros, 3-4, 231, 292
Anatolia, 25, 42, 166-67, 330; Allied and Ataturk. See Mustapha Kemal
American mandates in, 92, 112-15, 119-21,
Azerbaijan, 132-33, 270, 300
123-26,129n.63, 183, 185-87; Greek claims
in, 19, 40, 85-86; Italian claims in, 18-19,
43, 111-12, 160, 188-89; Italian-Greek ri- Balfour, Arthur, 68, 88, 97, 113, 134, 165; and
valry in, 41^4, 113, 162-64 Anatolian partition, 116-17, 130n.67; and
Armenia, 62 n.37; attitude toward Moslems,
Anezzana, Romano, 43
335 n.38; and Bulgaria, 157; and Constan-
Anglo-French Convention, 1904, 276 tinople, 120,191; and Italian-Greek tension,
Anglo-French Convention on Morocco and 163; and Lloyd George, 139; and Montagu,
Egypt (unsigned), 276, 304 335 n.38; and oil rights, 207-8; and Saint

Balfour (continued) Calthorpe, Arthur, 3, 105 n.68, 161, 191, 233
Jean de Maurienne Agreement, 101 n.2;and 234
Syria, 63n.59, 140, 15On.33; and Tittoni,
Cambon, Paul, 6, 17, 71, 79 n.2, 229 n.84, 251,
159; and treaty enforcement, 5; and wartime
285; critical of Clemenceau, 130 n.68,
agreements with Russia, 224 n.21; and
152 n.57; critical of Lloyd George, 152n.57,
Zionist aims, 140
333 n. 17; and French presidential election,
Balfour Declaration, 1917, 7, 10, 24, 57, 58, 221; predicts disaster for Turkish peace
324 treaty, 286
Baker, Ray S., 129 n.44 Capitulations, 231, 250-51, 263n.27
Baku, 270, 300 Caucasus: British military evacuation of,
Batum, 135, 201, 270-72, 299-300 131-36, 140; Italian mandate in, 132-33
Beer, George, 36 n.73, 80 n. 17 Central Islamic Society, 216
Bell, Gertrude, 139, 150n.28 Central Syrian Committee, 54
Beloff, Max, 226 n.54 Central Territorial Committee, 86-89, 91
153-54, 158
Berard, Victor, 17
Chaltaljah line, 219, 266
Berenger, Henry, 208, 212, 324
Chinda, Sutemi, 246
Berthelot, Philippe, 194, 198n.29, 222, 254;
and Armenia, 203,297; and Constantinople, Churchill, Winston, 317, 322, 324; and Ana-
193, 196, 219; critical of United States, 306; tolian partition, 130 n.67; and Constantino-
and Mosul, 206-7; and Nationalist move- ple, 191, 216, 217-18, 279; and enforcement
ment, 237-38; and oil rights, 211-12, 275; of peace treaty, 279; and Smyrna, 99; and
United States Near East involvement,
and Yale plan, 145
33 n.30
Bishop, Donald, 226 n.54
Cilicia, 4, 61 n.36, 214; Armenian claim to,
Bitlis, 270-98
49; French involvement in, 4, 16, 25, 135,
Black Sea, 120
140, 252-53; proposed American mandate
Blaisdell, Donald, 250-51 in, 120; and Turkish nationalists, 183-84,
Bliss, Howard, 54, 56, 62n.53 252-53, 277
Bliss, Tasker, 37 n.84, 96, 105 n.58, 148 n.2, Clayton, Gilbert, 72
155; and Smyrna, 60n.l0, 90, 104 n.56 Clemenceau, Georges, 61 n.24, 165, 329; and
Bloc policy towards Turkey, 280-81 Allenby, 163, 177n.51; and Anatolian par-
tition, 114, 115, 123-24, 185-86; and Ar-
Boghos Nubar Pasha, 47, 61 n.34
menia, 203; and Constantinople, 186,
Bolsheviks: military advance on Batum, 271, 189-90, 192-93; domestic political pressures
299; and Mustapha Kemal, 325; and Rus- on, 76; and Feisal, 64-65, 70-72, 79 n.2,
sian civil war, 202, 217, 299 146-47,213-14; and French imperial policy,
Bolshevism, 4, 325 17, 34n.42, 122; and French military oc-
Bonin-Longare, Lelio, 42, 43 cupation of Caucasus, 134; and Great Bri-
tain, 122, 187; and Italian territorial claims,
Boulogne, Allied conference at, 318
127n.l9, 199n.41; London visit of, 1918,
Bowman, Isaiah, 38 17-18; loses presidential election, 220-22;
Briand, Aristide, 79 n.2 and Mosul, 17-18, 34n.45, 206, 225n.28;
and oil rights, 209; and Palestine, 206; and
Bristol, Mark, 241 n.20, 311 n.29; and Smyrna,
Smyrna, 100, 168; and Syria, 65, 68, 82 n.49;
105n.68, 161, 286 n. 12
and Weizmann, 63 n.62; and Woodrow
British cabinet: opposes Anatolian partition,
Wilson, 25
120, 121, 130n.67; repudiates December,
Coal mines. See Heraclea coal mines
1919, Constantinople agreement, 215-19
Commission of Inquiry: Smyrna, 165-66, 168,
British press, 243, 314-15
169, 177n.56
Brusa, 22,316,319; as possible Turkish capital,
Commission of Inquiry: Syria: American
115, 189, 191
commissioners on, 75; attitude of the powers
Bulgaria: access to Aegean Sea, 156; bounda-
toward, 68-70, 74, 75-79; British commis-
ries of, 40, 157-58, 174 n.l; peace treaty
sioners named to, 73; dispatch of, 56, 66-67;
with, 88, 158
requests for, 53, 54. See also King-Crane
Cadman, John, 207-8, 209, 212 Committee of Foreign Ministers and Ambas-
Caliphate, 110, 121, 191, 216-17 sadors, 242-43
Committee of Military and Naval Experts, 295 Daily Telegraph (London), 315
Committee of Union and Progress (C.U.P.), Damad Ferid Pasha, 109, 181, 231, 235, 316
4, 107-9, 230, 233 Damascus, 51, 213
Committee on Greek and Albanian Affairs. Daoud Bey Mammon, 56
See Greek Committee Dardanelles, 218
Conference at San Remo: Anglo-French rela-
Davis, John, 133, 152 n.49, 284
tions at, 333 n.6; and Nationalist movement,
Day, Clive, 22, 41, 89, 102n.20
De Caix, Robert, 145, 316
Conference of London: importance of, 285
Declaration to the Seven, 1918, 8-9
Congress of Sivas, 231, 234
Dedeagatch, 85, 156, 266
Congress of Syrian notables, 273
Defrance, Albert, 233
Conservative Party, 10-12, 191
Denikin, Anton, 132, 217, 269, 299
Constantinople Agreement, 1915, 5, 7
Derby, Edward, 36 n.70, 293
Constantinople, 40, 121, 324, 330; Allied mili- De Robeck, John, 191, 233, 236, 237, 268-69,
tary command in, 168, 282-83; Allied oc-
280, 300
cupation of, 278-82, 289n.49 and n.55,
Deschanel, Paul, 221
307-8; American mandate in, 92, 120, 122,
125, 154, 155, 173, 189; as Moslem Holy D'Esperey, Franchet. See Franchet d'Esperey,
city, 117, 228n.71; as Turkish capital, 118, Louis
128n.41, 182; British repudiate December,
Dodecanese Islands, 6, 42, 43, 84-85, 164, 320
1919, agreement on, 215-19; December,
1919, Anglo-French agreement on, 192-94; Eastern Question, 5, 31, 321, 331
future of, 14-15, 23; Turkish expulsion
Eclair (Paris), 182
from, 182, 186, 189-90, 191, 193, 195-96;
Edmonds, C. J., 312n.52
Turkish retention of, 243-44: See also, Sul-
tan: in Constantinople Egypt, 110, 275-76, 304
Egyptian Public Debt, 276-77
Cornwallis, Kinahan, 145
Enos-Midia Line, 42, 266
Council of Four: creation of, 64
Enver Pasha, 230
Council of Mount Lebanon, 56
Epirus, Northern, 39, 43, 84
Council of Ten, 36n.71; response to Turkish
Erivan, 297
delegation, 110-11
Erzerum, 270, 296-98
Crane, Charles, 75, 81 n.25, 136
Erzinjan, 298
Cyprus, 40, 60n.l9, 110, 320
European settlement: and French Near East
Crowe, Eyre, 45, 60n.l9, 102 n. 11, 167, 237;
policy, 197
supports Greek claims in Anatolia, 93,
170-71, 173
Feisal, Emir, 52-53,64-65, 145; and agreement
Curzon, George, 71, 133, 184, 325, 328,
with Weizmann, 57-58; British subsidy to,
329-30; and Allied fiscal control over Tur-
147, 151 n.39; French subsidy to, 142, 147;
key, 195; and Armenia, 148 n.4, 201, 297;
and King-Crane Commission, 137; and
and Constantinople, 120, 182, 190, 191,
negotiations with Clemenceau, 70-72,
192-93, 218-19, 220, 262 n.6, 336n.41; and
79n.2. 81n.35, 147, 213-14; protests
Egyptian Public Debt Commission, 276-77;
Anglo-French September Agreement, 146;
and enforcement of peace treaty, 179-80,
refuses invitation to San Remo conference,
197 n.4, 237, 278, 281; and French Foreign
273; seeks American mandate, 67; and
Legion, 258-59; and League of Nations, 294,
Syrian independence movement, 137, 273;
335 n.38; and Nationalist movement, 234,
and Woodrow Wilson, 52
235, 237; and oil rights, 207-8, 210-11;
opposes Anatolian partition, 116, 130 n.67; Financial Commission, 194, 246-48
and Pichon, 179; and Rawlinson, 240 n.8; Fisher, Herbert, 192
rejects proposed bloc policy, 281; and
Fitzmaurice, Maurice, 161
Smyrna administration, 268; and Straits
Commission, 246; and supposed secret Fiume, 43, 95, 111; and Anatolia, 118, 120,
British treaty with Turkey, 181; and Tripar- 124
tite Pact, 254, 293; and proposed plan for Five Particulars, 1918, 9
a Turkish peace, 238-39, 330
Foch, Marshal, 295
Four Ends, 1918, 9 12-14; and State Bank of Morocco, 276;
Four Principles, 1918, 8 Straits policy of, 190-91; and Suez Canal
Fourteen Points, 1918, 8 rights," 275-76; and supposed secret treaty
with Turkey, 181-82
France, 53, 184-85, 229 n. 83, 262 n. 15, 277,
Greece, 45, 164, 310 n.6; claims before Peace
288n.41; and Arabs, 70-72, 213-14; and
Conference, 39-41; and negotiations with
Armenia, 294; concern regarding European
Italy, 42-44, 94; and Smyrna, 95-96, 101,
settlement, 16, 17-18; and Constantinople,
188, 267 (see also Smyrna); and Tittoni-
196, 228n.75; 262 n. 15, 278-79; and Egyp-
Venizelos Agreement, 164-65, 320; and
tian Public Debt Commission, 276-77; and
Turkish nationalists, 316-19, 321
Greek claims in Anatolia, 41, 86, 286 n.4,
326; and Heraclea coal mines, 292-93; and Greek Committee, 46, 83, 102 n. 11, 154, 267;
Kurdistan, 205, 301; and London confer- report of, 84-86
ence, 222, 285; and mandate in Anatolia, Greenwood, Hamar, 211, 275, 305
114, 119, 122-23, 126; Near East policy, 7, Greenwood-Berenger Agreement, 212, 214,
15-16, 55-56, 82n.49, 195, 325-26; and oil
226 n.52, 274-75, 304
rights, 206, 207, 211-12, 274, 304-7; opposes
Grey, Edward, 7
League responsibility in Armenia, 310 n.6;
and Ottoman Debt, 248-49; public opinion
in, 16-17,65, 315; and religious protectorate Hama, 51, 213
in Palestine, 302-3; and Suez Canal rights,
Hankey, Maurice, 92, 128n.41
275-76; and supposed Anglo-Turkish secret
Harbord, James, 198 n. 19
agreement, 182-83; and Turkish Nationalist
movement, 183-84,234-36, 237-38, 318, 326 Harbord Commission, 132, 183, 198 n. 19, 233
Hardinge, Charles, 45, 88, 235
Franchet D'Esperey, Louis, 25, 108, 168-69,
282-83 Harmsworth, Cecil, 161
Frangulis, Antoine, 34 n.42 Haskell, William, 148 n.l
French Foreign Legion, 258-59 Heck, Lewis, 47, 90, 107
French press, 128n.33, 150n.29; anti-British Heraclea coal mines, 113, 292-93
attitude, 68, 138-39; British irritation with, High commissioners. See Allied high com-
150n.24; and Constantinople, 219, 243; missioners
reaction to treaty terms, 315
Hindu nationalists. See Swaraj movement
Hirtzel, Arthur, 34 n.34
Galicia, 208
Hogarth, David, 73, 145
Gandhi, Mohandas, 216
Hogarth Message, 1918, 7-8
Ganem, Chekri, 54-55
Hohler, Thomas, 191, 228 n.71, 235-36
Garnett, David, 145-46
Holy Place, 121, 303
Gelfand, Lawrence, 36n.73
Horns, 51, 213
Gendarmerie, Turkish, 258, 264 n. 52
House, Edward, 67, 88, 90-91; and American
Georgia: possible Italian mandate in, 132-33;
Near East mandates, 50, 92
and Batum, 270-72, 299-300
Hussein, Sherif of Mecca, 6, 62n.53, 66
Giolitti, Giovanni, 319
Hythe, Allied conference at, 318
Gontaut-Biron, Roger de, 34 n.42
Gouraud, Henri, 145, 213
Gout, Jean, 79 n.2, 80 n.25 "Inquiry," The, 21
Government of India, 14-15, 34 n.34, 117,216 Ismid Peninsula, 316, 319
Italian press: reaction to treaty terms, 315
Great Britain, 81 n.38, 184-85, 228 n.70, 285;
and Armenia, 62 n.37,294,310 n.6; imperial Italy, 3 2 n . l l , 81 n.38, 132, 159, 285, 326-27;
policy of, 7, 11-15, 33 n.25, 45-46, 173, claims in Anatolia, 94-95, 119, 128n.43,
324-25; indifference of, to economic and 129n.46, 129 n.54, 160, 164, 188-89; and
business interests, 226 n.54; and Italian ter- Caucasus mandate, 132-33; and enforce-
ritorial claims, 111-20, 127 n.23; and Kur- ment of peace treaty, 294; and Greek ambi-
distan, 204-5, 301-2; 1918 elections in, tions in the Near East, 42-44, 85-86, 94,
10-12; oil rights of, 206-13, 274-75, 304-7; 97, 105n.61, 155, 267, 318, 320; and Hera-
and Ottoman Debt, 248-49; Petroleum Ex- clea coal mines, 292-93; Near East claims,
ecutive, 207; public opinion in, 11, 14, 6, 7, 18-20; and oil rights negotiations, 306;
33n.21, 139, 191, 314; rivalry with France, public opinion in, 95, 98, 315; seeks Turkish
friendship, 94-95, 197 n.6 (see also Sforza, 130 n.67, 186; and pro-Greek attitude, 45,
Carlo); strained relations with Allies, 18-20, 93, 172,220,324,333 n. 17, 329; and Smyrna,
95, 223, 278-79; and Tittoni-Venizelos 96, 100, 267; and Sykes-Picot Agreement,
Agreement, 164-65, 319-20; and Zionists, 33 n.25; and Syria, 65, 66, 79, 140-41; and
57 Tripartite Pact, 255; on Turkish claims, 110;
and Venizelos, 219, 329, 336 n.51; and Wil-
son, 15, 91, 294
Japan, 245-46, 248
Lodge, Henry Cabot, 23
Jewish National Home: See Palestine: Zionist
London conference. See Conference of Lon-
Jordan River, 214
London, Treaty of, 1915, 6, 41, 83-84, 111,
Jusserand, Jules, 284
Long, Walter, 209, 225 n.34, 324
Kavalla, 40
Long-Berenger Agreement, 208-9, 304
Kerr, Philip, 30
Lybyer, Albert, 22, 41, 80n.24, 98, 99, 102 n.6
Kidston, George, 184, 202-3
King, Henry, 75, 81 n.25, 136
King-Crane Commission, 139; report of, McMahon, Henry, 6, 73, 145
137-38, 150 n.20. See also Commission of Mahmud, Sheikh, 204
Inquiry: Syria Mallet, Louis, 113, 207
Kitchener, Horatio HL, 205 Manchester Guardian, 314
Kurdish-Armenian agreement, 205 Mandates system, 26-27, 31, 36n.73, 323,
Kurdistan, 26, 27, 203-5, 300-301 335 n.38; American participation in, 29,
50-51, 67, 87, 92, 120, 158, 178 n.67, 196 n.2;
Labour Party, 10, 149 n. 13, 191 attitude of powers toward, 113-14; British
Lansing, Robert, 56, 90, 157, 178 n.67 in Anatolia, 197 n.8; and League of Nations,
27, 126; and Sykes-Picot Agreement, 27-28;
Lausanne, Treaty of, 1923, 321
and Syria, 70
Law, Bonar, 149 n. 11
Mantoux, Paul, 64
Lawrence, T. E., 71, 79n.2, 81 n.36, 145
Marash, 253, 277
Lazistan, 272

Marmara, sea of, 120
League of Nations, 24, 253; and Armenia, 270,
Marmaris, 94
287 n.17, 293-94, 310 n.6; and Batum, 271;
and mandates system, 26-27; and minorities Martet, Jean, 221
in Turkey, 260-61; and Tittoni-Venizelos Mayer, Arno, 4
Agreement, 164-65; and Tripartite Pact, 255
Mazarakis, Alexandre, 169-70
Lebanon, 16, 30, 53, 214, 302
Mehmed VI, 107, 126 n.3; issues fetva vs.
Le Temps (Paris), 128n.33, 315 nationalists, 307
Liberal Party, 10, 191 Menderes River, 167
Libya, 18 Mersina, 47
Litani River, 214, 273 Mesopotamia, 7, 53, 76, 144; Arab-British
Lloyd George, David, 10-12, 113, 129n.44, conflict in, 273, 302, 323; British mandate
229 n.84, 242, 327-28; and Armenia, 294, in, 121, 302; oil in, 210-11, 274
296-98; and Balfour, 151 n.34; and British Mezes, Sidney, 102 n. 11, 154; and Greek
military establishment, 333 n. 17; and Com- claims, 86-87, 88, 90; and Westermann, 89,
mission of Inquiry: Syria, 73, 80 n.25, 90-91, 103n.28; and Woodrow Wilson, 91,
81 n.39; and Constantinople, 182, 190, 103 n.31
191-92, 219, 243; critical of United States,
Military provisions: in peace treaty, 257-59
283-84, 306-7; and enforcement of peace
Military representatives, Allied and Associated
treaty, 252, 253, 278, 280, 281, 317-18; and
powers, 29-30
Kurdistan, 301-2; and League of Nations,
294; and mandates system, 28, 115; and Miller, David H., 90
Mosul, 17-18; and Nationalist movement, Millerand, Alexandre, 221-22, 242, 329; and
313n.69; and oil rights, 209-10, 211, Armenia, 297-98; and Constantinople, 243;
225 n.40,274; and partition of Anatolia, 112, and Heraclea coal mines, 292; and oil rights,
117-18, 119, 120, 121, 123, 129n.62, 304; renounces French religious protec-
Millerand (continued) tions, 113-14; negotiations with Mezes,
torate in Palestine, 303; and Smyrna, 87-88, 90; and northern Epirus, 84; and
266-267, 268 Smyrna, 106 n.69
Milne, George, 163, 235, 237, 267; as com- Nitti, Francesco, 159, 242, 268, 315; and Ar-
mander of Constantinople garrison, 168-69, menia, 296; and Constantinople, 243, 279;
282-83 and Holy Places in Palestine, 303; and Tri-
Milne Commission: report of, 166-67 partite Pact, 255
Milner, Alfred, 30, 65, 113, 130n.67 Noel, Edward, 204
North Africa, 275-76, 304
Minorities, 256, 259-61
Nuri Said, 145
Minorities agreement: signing of, 320
Minorities Commission, Peace Conference,
Observer (London), 314
Montagu, Edwin, 117, 324; and Balfour,
Oil rights, 151n.42, 206-13, 274-75, 304-6
335 n.38; and Constantinople, 129n.55, 191,
312n.52, 323-24
216, 219; and Lloyd George, 129n.55; op-
poses Anatolian partition, 116, 130 n.67 Orlando, Vittorio, 66, 159; and Anatolian
partition, 113-14, 124; domestic political
Morning Post (London), 315
pressures on, 20, 104 n.45; and Greek oc-
Morocco, State Bank of, 276 cupation of Smyrna, 97-98; offers to aban-
Moslems: anti-British attitude of, 128 n.39; don Anatolia in return for Fiume, 118
and caliphate, 121; and Constantinople,
Ottoman Debt, 24, 121, 123, 194, 247-49, 291
216-17; and Holy Places, 121; in British
Ottoman Empire: French financial interest in,
Indian army, 218
55; liquidation of German, Hungarian, or
Mosul, vilayet of, 27, 203, 205-7, 226 n.42; Bulgarian interests in, 249-50, 257; military
Clemenceau concedes to Lloyd George, occupation of, 28-31, 37 n.84; prewar and
17-18, 206-7, 209
wartime concessions in, 250
Mudania, 319 Outlook, 314
Mudros, 3
Mush, 270
Palestine, 7, 144, 210; Arab policy, 53; bound-
Mustapha Kemal, 98, 223, 230, 277-78, 308; ary with Syria, 214, 272-73; British policy,
and Allied occupation of Constantinople, 13, 33 n.27, 56, 121; French policy, 16, 57,
307-8; and Bolsheviks, 325; and de Caix, 302-3; water rights, 214, 273; Zionist claims
316; French and Italian friendly advances in, 7, 56-59
to, 309; and Harbord, 233; and Peace Con-
Panderma, 22, 316
ference, 233; and Picot, 183-84, 198n.23;
reaction to peace treaty, 315; and Sforza, Peace Conference: French objections to ne-
176n.34 gotiations in London, 229 n.84
Peace terms: enforcement of, 4-5, 180, 236,
Nationalism, 323
238-39, 261, 278-82, 295-96, 307, 316-19,
Nationalist-French Cease-Fire Agreement, 330
"Pertinax," 145
Nationalist movement (Turkey), 98, 131-32,
Petroleum. See Oil rights
180,223, 323; Allied reaction to 232-39,282;
Pichon, Stephen, 16, 53, 56, 65, 66, 138, 179,
and Armenia, 296; Bolshevik aid to, 325,
198 n.29
336 n.42; and Cilicia, 183-184, 277; devel-
opment and program of, 230-32, 277-78, Picot, Georges, 79; and Mustapha Kemal,
239 n.2, 308; impact on San Remo confer-
183-84, 189, 198 n.23
ence, 307-9; Italian support for, 197 n.6,
Pipeline: Baku-Batum, 270, 300; Mosul to
309, 327; military campaigns of, 316, 321
Near East: Allied economic spheres of influ- Mediterranean, 206, 208
ence in, 251-59 Poincare, Raymond, 179, 228 n.75
New Statesman (London), 315 Polk, Frank, 141, 155, 165; and Thrace,
Nicolson, Harold, 39, 41, 43; admiration for 156-58; and Turkish treaty, 289 n.64; and
Venizelos, 60 n. 19; and Anatolian partition, Yale Plan, 152 n.49
114, 128n.27, 130 n.67; and Greek claims, Public opinion, 322-23, 331. See also Great
45, 93, 128 n.27; and Greek Committee, 87;
Britain; France; Italy; United States: public
and meeting of British and Italian delega-
opinion in
Railroads: Adana-Aleppo-Horns-Damascus, 92; British policy, 45-46 (see also Crowe;
30; Allied common control of German Lloyd George; Great Britain: imperial pol-
holdings in, 257; in Anatolia, 237; in Ar- icy); form of administration for, 267-68,
menia, 297; Baghdad line, 273; Baku- 292; Greek atrocities in, 161, 165, 169;
Batum, 270, 300; Mosul-Mediterranean, 73, Greek claims to, 40, 43; Greek military
74, 206, 214, 227n.58, 273; Smyrna-Aidin, occupation of, 95-96, 98, 99-101, 160,
123n.43; in Thrace, 156 170-71; Italian claims to, 43; Turkish sover-
eignty over, 188, 266-69
Rawlinson, Alfred, 240 n.8
Smyrna, sanjak of: boundary of Greek zone
Reparations: German, 93; Ottoman Empire,
in, 163, 167, 267, 292
Sonnino, Baron Sidney, 20, 94, 113, 159; and
Rhodes, 164, 320
Anatolian partition, 124; and Venizelos,
Rodd, Rennell, 175 n.20
42-43; and Woodrow Wilson, 25, 36 n.70,
Romanos, Athos, 42 124
Royal Dutch Shell Combine, 208, 210, 211, Standard Oil Company, 211, 305
Steed, H. Wickham, 80n.23, 144
Rumania: oil rights in, 208
Stirling, Walter, 145
Russia: impact of collapse of, 325; oil rights
Straits, 22; American mandate over, 15, 120,
in, 208; and potential alliance with Turkey,
125, 189; Allied control of, 4-5, 23, 192-93;
217; and Turkish nationalist movement, 217,
demilitarized zone boundaries for, 244;
325; and wartime agreements for Near East
international control commission for, 194,
partition, 5, 7, 51, 83, 205. See also Bolshe-
244-46, 291
Suez Canal, 275-76
Rustum Haidor, 145
Sultan Mehmed VI. See Mehmed VI
Ryan, Andrew, 191
Sultan, as holder of an office: as caliph, 117,
191-93; whether to locate in Constantino-
Saint Jean de Maurienne Agreement, 1917, ple, 100, 115, 122, 123, 191-94, 216-17
7, 41, 83, 101 n.2, 251, 256
Supreme Council: accepts Smyrna Commis-
Salih Pasha, 231 sion report, 171; and Batum, 271
Salonika, 40 Swaraj movement, 216-17
Santa Sophia, church of, 191, 199 n.54, Sykes-Picot Agreement, 1916, 6-7, 16, 27-28,
228n.71 3 2 n . l l , 33n.25, 51, 64, 78, 143, 203, 256
San Remo conference. See Conference at San Syria, 7, 144; American policy toward, 66-67;
Re mo and Anglo-French September Agreement,
142-43; Anglo-French tensions over, 64-65,
San Remo Oil Agreement, 304-5, 312n.53
138-39, 328; Arab policy toward, 53, 273;
Scalanuova, 98, 118, 128n.43, 160, 164
British policy toward, 33 n.28, 51, 70;
Schuman, Frederick, 321-22 boundaries of, 142-43, 212, 214, 272-73;
Scialoja, Vittorio, 167 Franco-Arab conflict over, 31, 302, 323;
French claims to, 16, 51-56; French man-
Secret negotiations: proposed Anglo-
date in, 36n.80, 121, 302; military occupa-
French-Italian, 25
tion of, 30, 73-75, 141, 147, 15On.33. See
Self-determination of nations, 8, 9, 27
also Commission of Inquiry: Syria; King-
September Agreement. See Anglo-French Crane Commission
September Agreement
Sevres, Treaty of, 1920, 239, 320-21, 335 n.32; Talbot, Gerald, 43
evaluation of, 321-24, 330-32
Tangier, Spanish: French interest in, 215, 276,
Seymour, Charles, 22, 41 304
Sforza, Carlo, 94-95, 319; cancels Tittoni- Tardieu, Andre, 102 n. 11, 156, 315
Venizelos Agreement, 319-20; critical of
Temperley, Harold, 82 n.47
Lloyd George, 334 n. 17; pro-Turkish sym-
Tewfik Pasha, 316
pathies, 327; supports Nationalist move-
ment, 176n.34, 197 n.6 Thrace, 41, 44, 154-55, 164, 265-66, 325; Bul-
garian claims to, 153-54; Greek claims to,
Sivas, 183
39-40; Greek occupation of, 265-66, 319;
Smuts, Jan, 26
report of Greek Committee, 85; to be given
Smyrna, 25, 121, 164; American policy, 42, to Greece, 188, 266; Turkish claims to, 109
Tilley, J. A. C , 184 Vansittart, Robert, 93
Times (London), 107, 133, 144, 160, 211, "Vatican" proposal, 191-93
312n.52, 315
Venizelos, Eleutherios, 39, 88, 329; domestic
Tittoni, Tommaso, 18, 155-56, 159, 162 political pressures on, 61 n.23; and enforce-
Tittoni-Venizelos Agreement, 164-65, 319-20 ment of peace treaty, 295, 317; and Italian-
Greek conflict, 42-43,94, 162-63; and Lloyd
Townshend, Charles, 3
George, 219-20, 292; and Smyrna, 96, 162,
Toynbee, Arnold, 88
170, 171-72, 267, 268; and Thrace, 155-57,
Trebizond, 270, 298 266
Tripartite Pact, 255-57, 292; signing of, 257, Versailles, Treaty of, 330-31
293, 320, 321
Turkey, 25, 83, 102 n. 11, 177n.48, 185, 196,
217, 276, 278, 291; Allied administrative War Office: opposes December, 1919, Con-
authority in, 251-56; Allied fiscal control stantinople agreement, 217-18
in, 121-22, 194-96, 246-51, 291; and armi- Webb, Richard, 161, 181, 233, 236
stice terms, 4; British attitude toward,
Westermann, William, 129 n.63; and
190-91; delegations to Peace Conference of,
Commission of Inquiry: Syria, 80 n. 17; and
109-10, 309, 319; and Greek occupation of
House, 103n.28; and Mezes, 103n.28; and
Smyrna, 97, 98, 160, 166, 266-69; military
Smyrna, 90-91, 102 n. 19, 103 n.28 and n.36
forces in, 258, 264 n.52; and Nationalist
movement, 232, 233, 240 n. 12; opposes Ar- Westminster Gazette, 314
menian state, 132; policy toward Allies of,
White, Henry, 155, 156, 81 n.25
108, 176n.34, 180-81, 197 n.8; possible ex-
White Russian forces: Allies withdraw aid
clusion from Europe of, 14-15, 23, 119, 182,
from, 202
189-95, 215-19. See also Peace terms: en-
forcement of Wilson, Arnold, 27, 76, 203, 211
Turkish Nationalists. See Nationalist move- Wilson, Henry, 105n.58 and n.68, 113,
178n.66, 317
ment (Turkey)
Wilson, Woodrow, 23, 284, 322, 323, 327; and
Turkish Petroleum Company, 206, 207, 208,
American Near East mandates, 15, 22, 49,
62n.39, 70, 111, 122, 125, 299, 327-28; and
Turkish press, 243-44, 315
Anatolian partition, 111, 112, 124-26,
128n.30; anti-Italian attitude, 36n.70, 96,
United States, 63 n.61, 148 n.7, 244, 263 n.27, 101, 106n.76, 112, 125, 327; and Commis-
294; and Conference at San Remo, 306-7; sion of Inquiry: Syria, 66, 80n.l7, 81 n.25;
and Conference of London, 284-85, and Constantinople, 119, 122, 123, 125,284;
289n.64; and Greek claims, 41-42, 86, defines Armenian boundaries, 298-99; and
154-55, 158; failure to ratify Versailles Feisal, 52; and Greek claims in Anatolia,
treaty, 174, 178n.67, 185, 328; loss of influ- 92-93, 103 n.31 and n.39, 106 n.76, 114; and
ence on Near East negotiations, 186, 223, Greek occupation of Smyrna, 95, 96, 100,
266, 284-85, 306-7; Near East aims of, 105 n.57, 125; and League of Nations, 29,
20-22; and negotiation of Turkish treaty, 126; and mandates system, 29, 115; and
327-29, 336n.50; and oil rights, 210, 306; Orlando, 25, 36n.70; statement of peace
public opinion in, 22; and secret wartime aims, 8, 9, 10; on Turkish claims, 110;
agreements, 21, 84. See also Armenia: proposes unofficial French "mandate" in
American mandate in; Mandates system: Anatolia, 119, 123, 125-26, 129 n.63; and
American participation in; Wilson, Wood- Sonnino, 25, 36n.70; and Thrace, 155, 157,
row 188; and treaty terms, 284; and Weizmann,
Weizmann, Chaim, 57-58, 63n.61 and n.62
United States Commissioners Plenipotentiary,
United States Department of State, 133
Yale, William, 67, 151 n.42. See also Yale plan
United States Senate: and American man-
Yale plan, 143-46, 151 n.48, 152n.49
dates, 125, 328
Yugoslavia, 43, 118, 120, 312n.59
Van, 270, 298
Van, Lake, 298 Zionists, 7, 56-59, 324
(Continued from front flap)
European rivalries, imperialist ambitions, and
national prejudices, compounded by private
antagonisms and personal conflicts among
the negotiants, were permitted to shape finally
and permanently the substance of the treaty
that was signed. In the end, Dr. Helmreich
demonstrates conclusively, the Treaty of Sevres
suffered the tragic misfortune of being a
nineteenth-century solution to a nineteenth-
century problem that occurred—fatefully, it
turns out —in the novel and misunderstood
environment of the twentieth.
Paul C. Helmreich is associate professor of
history at Wheaton College in Norton,

Designed by Harold M. Stevens

No comments:

Post a Comment